Animal Biology

A.Y. 2021/2022
7
Max ECTS
56
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/13
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course is designed to provide students with the basic knowledge of Animal Biology. First of all, students will learn the concept of cell diversity (prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells), of organisms and their level of organization. They will also learn the concepts of biodiversity, origin and evolution of life. The Course will then be specifically focused on eukaryotic cells. Students will acquire knowldge on: structure and function of the cell; structure of biological membranes; organization and function of subcellular organelles; cell metabolism; the flow of the genetic information into the cell (gene, eukaryotic genome, DNA replication, transcription, translation, control of gene expression and epigenetic mechanisms). Additional objectives of the Course will be to provide students with the knowledge of the mechanisms of cell proliferation and cell cycle checkpoints; mitosis; ell stemness; cell death; cell-to-cell communication; asexual and sexual reproduction; mitosis, meiosis and gametogenesis; the principles of heredity (Mendelian heredity) and details of some genetic diseses. At the end of the Course, seminars will be given on the molecular basis of some pathologies (cancer) in order to underline the relationship between basic science and clinical applications. This Course will provide students with the basic scientific knowledge necessary to face the Courses of the following years, based on biological concepts (physiology, biochemistry, pathology, pharmacology, etc.), in line with the professional profile and employment opportunities provided by the entire training.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students should prove that they have acquired and understood the knowledge of the main biological features of animal cells (eukaryotic cells). Specifically, they should have acquired a solid knowledge on: cell membranes, cytoplasmic organelles, metabolism, flow of the genetic information from DNA to proteins, cell life/death programs, cell-cell interactions, asexual/sexual reproduction, transmission and expression of hereditary traits (Mendelian law of inheritance).
When they have completed the course, students should have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant and recent topics in the field of biology of the animal cells. This achievement is necessary for the acquirement of a further and deeper knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of pathologies and, consequently, the mechanims of action of drugs, in line with their professional profiles.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AL

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.

During the emergency teaching phase, the teaching program, the reference materials and the training objectives will not change.
Teaching methods: The teaching course foresees two lessons a week in presence (if possible) and at the same time by videoconference using the Microsoft Teams platform. The criteria for participating to lecutures in presence, as well as any notice related to Covid-19 will be published in due time on the Ariel pages of the teaching course.
Learning verifications: The exam is oral and will take place in presence (if possible) or in videoconference by using the Microsoft Teams platform. During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of animal biology.
Course syllabus
For attending and non-attending students:

Introduction to Biology - The cell- Prokaryotes and eukariotes - Unicellular and pluricellular organisms - Atoms and chemical bonds in the cell components - Inorganic and organic components of the cell - Biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) - Cell metabolism, enzymes and biological reactions - Structure and function of the biological membranes -Selective permeability of the membranes - Transport mechanisms across membranes - Intracellular membrane systems: reticulum endoplasmaticum, Golgi apparatus, nuclear envelope, lysosomes, peroxisomes - Energy and metabolism: cellular respiration, glycolisis, Krebs cycle, oxydative phosphorylation (the mitochondria) - The nucleus: DNA, chromatin organization - Chromosomes as transmitters of the genetic information - DNA replication - Telomeres and telomerase - Replication errors and their repair - RNA transcription and processing - Control of the transcription process - RNA structure and functions - Protein synthesis (translation) - RNA translation and genetic code - Control of gene expression - Protein sorting and transport - Vesicle trafficking: exocytosis, endocytosis - The cytoskeleton and cell motility - Extracellular matrix - Junctions between cells - Cell communication and signaling - Receptors and intracellular signaling pathways - The cell cycle and its control - Mitosis - Cellular differentiation - Apoptosis (programmed cell death) - Cell stemness - Meiosis - Gametogenesis and fertilization - Basis of human genetics - Mendelian inheritance - Seminar: Molecular basis of cellular transformation (tumor growth and progression).
Prerequisites for admission
Students should possess the basic knowledge of chemistry (general, inorganic and organic) and of cell biology.
Teaching methods
Lecture classes with the support of slides. The slides will be made available to students in the homepage of the teacher at Ariel website (http://users.unimi.it/ariel).
Teaching Resources
Bibliography and additional teaching material:

- Ginelli E. e Malcovati A.
Molecules, Cells and Organisms
1st Edition, EdiSES, 2016

- Karp G.
Cellular and Molecular Biology
Fifth Edition, EdiSES, 2015

- Hardin J. et al.
Becker - The world of the cell
9th Edition, Pearson, 2018

- Slides of the lessons: available at the teacher's site in Ariel (http://users.unimi.it/ariel)
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is oral and is based on the discussion of all the topics addressed during the lecture classes of the teaching course. Students will be asked to demonstrate to have acquired knowledge of the main biological features of animal cells (eukaryotic).
Specifically, they should demonstrate to have acquired a solid knowledge on: cell membranes, enzymes, cytoplasmic organelles, cell metabolism, flow of the genetic information from DNA to proteins, cell life/death programs, cell-cell interactions and communications, mitosis and meiosis, asexual/sexual reproduction, basis of human genetics, Mendelian inheritance, molecular basis of cellular transformation (tumorigenesis).
During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of animal biology.
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 7
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: Limonta Patrizia

Linea MZ

Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.

Learning verifications: The exam is oral and will take place in videoconference by using either with Teams platform.
Course syllabus
Introduction to Biology - The cell- Prokaryotes and eukariotes - Unicellular and pluricellular organisms - Atoms and chemical bonds in the cell components - Inorganic and organic components of the cell - Biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) - Cell metabolism, enzymes and biological reactions - Structure and function of the biological membranes -Selective permeability of the membranes - Transport mechanisms across membranes - Intracellular membrane systems: reticulum endoplasmaticum, Golgi apparatus, nuclear envelope, lysosomes, peroxisomes - Energy and metabolism: cellular respiration, glycolisis, Krebs cycle, oxydative phosphorylation (the mitochondria) - The nucleus: DNA, chromatin organization - Chromosomes as transmitters of the genetic information - DNA replication - Telomeres and telomerase - Replication errors and their repair - RNA transcription and processing - Control of the transcription process - RNA structure and functions - Protein synthesis (translation) - RNA translation and genetic code - Control of gene expression - Protein sorting and transport - Vesicle trafficking: exocytosis, endocytosis - The cytoskeleton and cell motility - Extracellular matrix - Junctions between cells - Cell communication and signaling - Receptors and intracellular signaling pathways - The cell cycle and its control - Mitosis - Cellular differentiation - Apoptosis (programmed cell death) - Cell stemness - Meiosis - Gametogenesis and fertilization - Basis of human genetics - Mendelian inheritance - Seminar: Molecular basis of cellular transformation (tumor growth and progression)
Prerequisites for admission
Students should possess the basic knowledge of chemistry (general, inorganic and organic) and of cell biology.
Teaching methods
Lecture classes with the support of slides. The slides are available to students in the homepage of the teacher at Ariel website (http://users.unimi.it/ariel)
Teaching Resources
- Ginelli E. e Malcovati A.
Molecules, Cells and Organisms
1st Edition, EdiSES, 2016

- Hardin J. et al.
Becker - The world of the cells
9th Edition, Pearson, 2018
- Karp G
Biologia cellulare e molecolare
6a Edizione, EdiSES, 2021

Slides of the lessons: available at the teacher's site Roberta Moretti line MZ in Ariel (http://users.unimi.it/ariel)
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is oral and is based on the discussion of all the topics addressed during the lecture classes of the course. Students will be asked to demonstrate to have acquired knowledge of the main biological features of animal cells (eukaryotic). Specifically, they should demonstrate to have acquired a solid knowledge on: cell membranes, enzymes, cytoplasmic organelles, cell metabolism, flow of the genetic information from DNA to proteins, cell life/death programs, cell-cell interactions and communications, mitosis and meiosis, asexual/sexual reproduction, basis of human genetics, Mendelian inheritance, molecular basis of cellular transformation (tumorigenesis). During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of animal biology.
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 7
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
delivery by appointment
online