Animal Biology and Plant Biology

A.Y. 2021/2022
9
Max ECTS
72
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/13 BIO/15
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide the student with the basic knowledge of fundamental characteristics of living organisms, from biological molecules, subcellular organelles, cells and tissues, as well as their functioning, in order to address any subsequent teaching of the biological area.
The teaching aims to provide students with a general understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control replication, transcription, translation, protein maturation and cellular metabolism, as well as deepening specific cellular behaviours such as proliferation, motility, survival and/or death.
Moreover, the course will give to the students an in-depth look at the mechanisms of cell cycle control, signalling pathways and transformation of cancer cells. activities concerning methods of cytology and microscopy.
The objective of vegetal biology is to provide the basic knowledge on the structure and function of the plant organs, tissues, cells and organelles involved in cellular differentiation, respiration, photosynthesis, reproduction and growth. The course also provides information about plant strategies to interact with the environment through secondary metabolites, and the importance of plants for terrestrial ecosystem.
Expected learning outcomes
The student should demonstrate to have acquired and understood a general knowledge about the main inorganic and organic components of living organisms, nucleic acid and protein synthesis and related basic regulation, the main functions of nucleic acids and proteins, and transmission of information from DNA to proteins, both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Moreover, the student should gain knowledge of the molecular organization and functions of subcellular organelles and membrane systems in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as well as cell division processes of eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, students should gain a basic understanding of the structure of viruses and bacteria.
The student will be able to acquire theoretical and basic knowledge to:
- describe the features of plant organs, tissues, cells and organelles involved in cellular respiration, photosynthesis, reproduction, and growth;
- demonstrate an understanding of how water moves in plants at both molecular and organismal levels;
- describe how plants interact with and contribute to their environment through secondary metabolites;
- describe the cultural uses of plants for food, fiber and medicine.
Upon completing the course, the student should also demonstrate to have acquired a specific language and the biological terminology in order to communicate the most relevant and recent topics in the field of general and cellular biology of the cells.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AK

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
During the emergency teaching phase, the course program, the reference materials and the training objectives will not change.
Teaching methods: The course foresees two lessons a week in presence (if possible) and at the same time by videoconference using the Teams platform. All lessons will be recorded and made available on the Ariel or Teams platforms.
The criteria for participating to lectures in presence, as well as any notice related to Covid-19 will be published in due time on the Ariel page of the course.
Learning verifications: The exam is oral and will take place in videoconference by using either the Teams or the platform. During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of animal biology.
Course syllabus
Biology rappresents a research field which is always in expansion and it is fundamental for several novel application in pharmacology, medicine and biotechnology. The knowledge of the basic principles of cell, animal and plant biology is an essential tool to approach inter-disciplinar scientific studies. The objective of this course will be that to provide the basic knowledge on the structure and function of the animal and plant cells; this will allow students to achieve a good scientific background required for more specialized courses that will be attended in the remaining years of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Technologies.

ANIMAL BIOLOGY

Introduction to the Cell Biology
The organization of living organisms.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

The chemical basis of life:
The life-supporting properties of water
Biological molecules : Carbohydrates, lipids. Proteins. Nucleic Acids.
Enzymes and metabolism

The Glicolysis
The Mitochondria
Aerobic respiration and the mitochondrion

Cell Membranes
Chemical composition, Dynamic nature
Movement of substances across cell membranes

Genetics
Mendel laws, dominance, multiple alleles
Inheritance sex-related.
Genetic associations, chromosome maps, mutations and rearrangements

Nucleic acids; Structure and replication of DNA
Nucleus of eukaryotic cells:
organization, interphase and mitotic chromosomes
The nature of the gene .
Expression of genetic information:
from transcription to translation
Ribosome and protein synthesis.
Control of gene expression

Cytoplasmic membrane systems
Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex
Nuclear envelop. Lysosomes. Endocytosis and secretion.

Cytoskeleton and cell motility

The signal transduction
Membrane and Nuclear receptors

Cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, Meiosis
Apoptosis . Genotype and phenotype of a cancer cell.
Pluricellular organism : sexual reproduction.
Gametogenesis and Fertilization.

PLANT BIOLOGY

Autotroph and heterotroph organisms.
Animal and vegetal cell differences
Plastids: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts
Vacuole: origin, development and functions. Vacuolar content with particular reference to secondary metabolites.
Plasmodesmata between plant cells.
Transport across the plasma membrane. Osmotic phenomena, plasmolysis and deplasmolysis. Osmotic pressure, turgor pressure.

Middle lamella and cell wall. Genesis and development of the cell wall. Cell wall functions.
Chemical components of the cell wall: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin substances. Secondary modifications of the cell wall: lignification, suberization, mineralization, cutinization.

Tissues in higher plant. Apical meristems (SAM, RAM), primary meristems (protoderm, procambium, ground meristem and intercalary meristem), secondary meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium).
Embryonic growth and distension growth. Differentiation. Adult tissues: parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, secretory, conductive.

Organography: stem, leaves, root apparatus.
Stem anatomy: vegetative apex, stem primary structure of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Stem secondary structure of Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms. Heteroxylous and homoxylous wood.
Functioning of the vascular cambium.

Root anatomy: root apex, root primary structure of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Roots secondary structure of Dicotyledons.

Leaves: form, structure and function of the leaves of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Gas exchanges between the leaf and the external environment and their regulation mechanisms. Functioning of stomata.

Photosynthesis

Flower, pollination and fertilisation

Seed and germination

Botanical fruit types: fleshy fruit (berry and drupes), dry dehiscent fruit (capsule, legume, silique, follicle), dry indehiscent fruit (nut, samara, caryopsis and achene).

Botanical hormon: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, brassinosteroids
Prerequisites for admission
The course will address all basic and advanced notions related to General and Cell Biology. Only the elementary knowledges of chemistry (general, inorganic and organic) and biology tipically obtained in the high school are recommended.
Teaching methods
Lecture classes with the support of slides. The slides are available to students in the webpage dedicated to the "Teaching materials" on the website of the Professor in the Ariel platform (http://users.unimi.it/ariel).
Teaching Resources
Animal Biology
Molecole, Cellule e Organismi - Ginelli E. & Malcovati M. - I edizione, 2016 - EdiSES
Il Mondo della Cellula - Becker W.M. et al. - IX edizione, 2018 - Pearson
La Cellula: Un Approccio Molecolare - Cooper GM, Hausman RE - V edizione, 2012 - PICCIN editore
L' Essenziale di Biologia Molecolare della Cellula - Alberts et al. - V edizione, 2015 - Zanichelli editore
Biologia Cellulare e Genetica (I Biologia Cellulare) - Fantoni et al. - I Edizione - PICCIN editore
Biologia Cellulare e Molecolare - Karp G. - V edizione, 2015 - EdiSES

Plant Biology
E. MAUGINI: Manuale di Botanica Farmaceutica - IX Ed. - Piccin

Other books.
Biologia Cellulare - Pollard TD, Earnshaw WC - II Edizione - Elsevier/Masson editori
Cellule - Lewin et al., Zanichelli
Biologia - Sadava et al., Zanichelli,
Elementi di Biologia - Solomon et al., EdiSES.
Biologia - Campbell et al., Pearson.

Lecture classes with the support of slides. The slides are available to students in the webpage dedicated to the "Teaching materials" on the website of the Professor in the Ariel platform (http://users.unimi.it/ariel)
Assessment methods and Criteria
The section related to Animal Biology will be based on a final evaluation consisting in oral examination based on the discussion of all the topics addressed during the lecture classes of the course. Students will be asked to demonstrate to have acquired knowledge of the main biological features of the cells (procaryotic and eukaryotic). Specifically, they should demonstrate to have acquired a solid knowledge on: cell membranes, enzymes, cytoplasmic organelles, cell metabolism, flow of the genetic information from DNA to proteins, cell life/death programs, cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, intercellular communications, mitosis and meiosis, asexual/sexual reproduction, gametogenesi, general aspects of fertilization and early phases of the embryonic development, molecular basis of cellular transformation (tumorigenesis), theory of evolution.
During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of animal biology.

PLANT BIOLOGY
The section related to Plant Biology will be based on a final evaluation consisting in a written and oral examination based on the structure and functions of plant cells, as well as the description of tissues and organs composing the plants (vascular, reproductive, reservoir, parenchimal and tegumental tissues). During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of plant biology.

The final examination vote will be obtained by using the weighted average score obtain in the Animal biology and plant biology evaluations.
Animal Biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Poletti Angelo
Plant Biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Pinna Christian

Linea LZ

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 21/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
During the emergency teaching phase, the course program, the reference materials and the training objectives will not change.
Teaching methods: The course foresees two lessons a week in presence (if possible) and at the same time by videoconference using the Teams platform. All lessons will be recorded and made available on the Ariel or Teams platforms.
The criteria for participating to lectures in presence, as well as any notice related to Covid-19 will be published in due time on the Ariel page of the course.
Learning verifications: The exam is oral and will take place in videoconference by using either the Teams or the platform. During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of animal biology.
Course syllabus
Biology rappresents a research field which is always in expansion and it is fundamental for several novel application in pharmacology, medicine and biotechnology. The knowledge of the basic principles of cell, animal and plant biology is an essential tool to approach inter-disciplinar scientific studies. The objective of this course will be that to provide the basic knowledge on the structure and function of the animal and plant cells; this will allow students to achieve a good scientific background required for more specialized courses that will be attended in the remaining years of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Technologies.

ANIMAL BIOLOGY

Introduction to the Cell Biology
The organization of living organisms.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

The chemical basis of life:
The life-supporting properties of water
Biological molecules : Carbohydrates, lipids. Proteins. Nucleic Acids.
Enzymes and metabolism

The Glicolysis
The Mitochondria
Aerobic respiration and the mitochondrion

Cell Membranes
Chemical composition, Dynamic nature
Movement of substances across cell membranes

Genetics
Mendel laws, dominance, multiple alleles
Inheritance sex-related.
Genetic associations, chromosome maps, mutations and rearrangements

Nucleic acids; Structure and replication of DNA
Nucleus of eukaryotic cells:
organization, interphase and mitotic chromosomes
The nature of the gene .
Expression of genetic information:
from transcription to translation
Ribosome and protein synthesis.
Control of gene expression

Cytoplasmic membrane systems
Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex
Nuclear envelop. Lysosomes. Endocytosis and secretion.

Cytoskeleton and cell motility

The signal transduction
Membrane and Nuclear receptors

Cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, Meiosis
Apoptosis . Genotype and phenotype of a cancer cell.
Pluricellular organism : sexual reproduction.
Gametogenesis and Fertilization.

Animal and plant organisms, differences
Plant nutrition: autotroph and heterotroph orgamisms.
Plant cell
Plastids: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts
Vacuole: origin, development, functions. Vacuolar content with particular reference to secondary metabolites.
Transport across the plasma membrane. Osmotic phenomena, plasmolysis and deplasmolysis. Osmotic pressure, turgor pressure.

Middle lamella and cell wall. Genesis and development of the cell wall. Cell wall functions.
Chemical components of the cell wall: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin substances. Secondary modifications of the cell wall: lignification, suberization, mineralization, cutinization.

Tissues in higher plant. Primary and secondary meristematic tissues. Embryonic growth and distension growth. Differentiation. Adult tissues: parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, secretory, conductive.

Organography: stem, leaves, root apparatus.
Stem anatomy: vegetative apex, stem primary structure of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Stem secondary structure of Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms. Heteroxylous and homoxylous wood. Functioning of the vascular cambium.

Root anatomy: root apex, root primary structure of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Roots secondary structure of Dicotyledons.

Leaves: form, structure and function of the leaves of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Gas exchanges between the leaf and the external environment and their regulation mechanisms. Functioning of stomata.
Flower. Fruit. Seed, hints of germination
Hints of systematic botany with examples
Prerequisites for admission
The course will address all basic and advanced notions related to General and Cell Biology. Only the elementary knowledges of chemistry (general, inorganic and organic) and biology tipically obtained in the high school are recommended.
Teaching methods
Lecture classes with the support of slides. The slides are available to students in the webpage dedicated to the "Teaching materials" on the website of the Professor in the Ariel platform (http://users.unimi.it/ariel).
Teaching Resources
Animal Biology
Molecole, Cellule e Organismi - Ginelli E. & Malcovati M. - I edizione, 2016 - EdiSES
Il Mondo della Cellula - Becker W.M. et al. - IX edizione, 2018 - Pearson
La Cellula: Un Approccio Molecolare - Cooper GM, Hausman RE - V edizione, 2012 - PICCIN editore
L' Essenziale di Biologia Molecolare della Cellula - Alberts et al. - V edizione, 2015 - Zanichelli editore
Biologia Cellulare e Genetica (I Biologia Cellulare) - Fantoni et al. - I Edizione - PICCIN editore
Biologia Cellulare e Molecolare - Karp G. - V edizione, 2015 - EdiSES

Plant Biology
Maugini E., Maleci Bini L., Mariotti Lippi M. 2014. Botanica Farmaceutica, Piccin, Padova.
Leporatti M.L., Foddai S., Tommassini L. 2001. Testo atlante di anatomia vegetale e delle piante officinali. Piccin, Padova


Other books.
Biologia Cellulare - Pollard TD, Earnshaw WC - II Edizione - Elsevier/Masson editori
Cellule - Lewin et al., Zanichelli
Biologia - Sadava et al., Zanichelli,
Elementi di Biologia - Solomon et al., EdiSES.
Biologia - Campbell et al., Pearson.

Lecture classes with the support of slides. The slides are available to students in the webpage dedicated to the "Teaching materials" on the website of the Professor in the Ariel platform (http://users.unimi.it/ariel)
Assessment methods and Criteria
The section related to Animal Biology will be based on a final evaluation consisting in oral examination based on the discussion of all the topics addressed during the lecture classes of the course. Students will be asked to demonstrate to have acquired knowledge of the main biological features of the cells (procaryotic and eukaryotic). Specifically, they should demonstrate to have acquired a solid knowledge on: cell membranes, enzymes, cytoplasmic organelles, cell metabolism, flow of the genetic information from DNA to proteins, cell life/death programs, cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, intercellular communications, mitosis and meiosis, asexual/sexual reproduction, gametogenesi, general aspects of fertilization and early phases of the embryonic development, molecular basis of cellular transformation (tumorigenesis), theory of evolution.
During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of animal biology.

PLANT BIOLOGY
The section related to Plant Biology will be based on a final evaluation consisting in a written and oral examination based on the structure and functions of plant cells, as well as the description of tissues and organs composing the plants (vascular, reproductive, reservoir, parenchimal and tegumental tissues). During the examination, students should demonstrate to have acquired an accurate and specific biological language allowing them to communicate the most relevant topics in the field of plant biology.

The final examination vote will be obtained by using the weighted average score obtain in the Animal biology and plant biology evaluations.
Animal Biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Rusmini Paola
Plant Biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Giuliani Claudia