Basic Sciences

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/10 BIO/13 FIS/07
Learning objectives
The student should:
- Know chemistry fundamentals, which are essential to understand the living matter and the organic compounds relevant to biochemistry and pharmacology
- Know molecular and biochemical mechanisms on which life and metabolism rely
- Know the mechanisms involved in the genetic information transmission and expression
- Know the essential biological organization of living organisms
- Know physics fundamentals, useful to understand and explain physiological phenomena
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and comprehension:
Biomedical sciences for the comprehension of physiological and pathological processes related to healthy state and illness of the newborn, of the infant and of the teenager
Ability to apply knowledge and comprehension

The students should be able to:
- apply theoretical knowledge coming from the nursing discipline and from the biological as well as medical sciences in order to recognize people/recipient's needs during different phases of life
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
Being a first year, first semester course, there are not specific prerequisites differing from these needed to start the degree course
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written test - multiple choice test (1 point for correct answer, 0 points for wrong answer) - total exam duration 1h and 30 minutes. Questions will be divided according to the credits: 20 biology + 20 biochemistry + 10 physics. To pass the exam, you must have enough in each subject (minimum 12 correct answers for biology and biochemistry, minimum 6 correct answers for physics)
Course syllabus
Atomic structure. Chemical bonds: ionic bond and covalent bond
Intermolecular bonds: van der Waals bonds and hydrogen bonds
Water: structure and characteristics; leak interactions in aqueous solution
Aqueous solutions: concentration, colligative properties, osmosis
Chemical reactions: general concepts. Reactions and equilibrium. Catalists. Redox reactions.
Ionic equilibrium in aqueous solution: water ionization, ionic product of water, pH, acids and bases, buffer solutions
Carbon and its bonds. Organic compounds (most important classes)
Structure of the organic compounds with biological activity
Enzymes: structure, action mechanism, regulation
Metabolism: general characteristics, catabolic and anabolic pathways
Energetic metabolism: energy compounds, ATP cycle, ATP synthesis, Krebs' cycle, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense
Sugar metabolism: digestion, origin and fate of glucose, sugar metabolism regulation
Lipid metabolism: digestion, origin and fate of fatty acids, lipid metabolism regulation
Aminoacid metabolism: digestion, origin and fate of aminoacids, aminoacid metabolism regulation
Nucleotides and heme group synthesis and degradation
Teaching methods
Lectures and frontal teaching
Teaching Resources
M. Samaja e R. Paroni. Chimica e Biochimica. Piccin editore
A. Di Giulio, A. Fiorilli, C. Stefanelli. Biochimica per Scienze Motorie. CEA-Zanichelli editore
D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox. Introduzione alla biochimica di Lehninger. Zanichelli editore
Experimental biology
Course syllabus
Characteristics of living organisms: cellular theory, methods for studying cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, hierarchical organization in biology, organism evolution. Viruses as genetic parasites of bacteria and eucariothic cells
Informational macromolecules and central dogma of biology: DNA, RNA, proteins
Structure and organization of eukaryotic cells: cellular compartmentalization, membranous organelles and endosymbiontics, ribosomes, cytoskeleton, junctions, matrix
Cellular communication: modalities of communication among cells
Cell cycle and its regulation: phases of the cycle, control systems, apoptosis, tumoral cell.
Living beings reproduction: asexual and sexual reproduction, mitosis, meiosis, analogies and differences, gametogenesis, fertilization, differentiation
DNA replication: Meselson and Stahl and the semiconservative model of replication of the double strand, replication at molecular level, DNA damage and recovery
Transcription: different RNAs, RNA stnthesis and maturation of messenger RNAs.
Translation and genetic code: decryption of the genetic code, ribosomes and mechanisms of protein synthesis, post translational modifications
Eukaryotic genome: nucleosome structure, chromatin, gene structure (introns-exons), modulation of genetic expression
Mendel's laws
- From gene to protein to phenotype: relationship between genotype and phenotype
- Allelic interactions: dominant and recessive phenotypes, incomplete dominance e codominance
- Law on segregation of characters and their independent transmission
Modalities of transmission of mendelian traits in humans
- Mode of inheritance of characters: autosomal dominant and recessive, X-linked, mitochondrial
- Examples of monogenic inherited pathologies (sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, Huntington chorea, haemophilia B)
- Locus heterogeneity
- Penetrance, expressiveness, multiple alleles (blood groups ABO, Rh)
- Family trees
Human cytogenetics
- Human normal karyotype
- Chromosomal aberrations (number and structure)
- Examples of sydromes due to chromosomal aberrations: trisomy of 21, 13 and 18, Klinefelter and Turner syndromes, Cri-du-chat
Teaching methods
Lectures and frontal teaching
Teaching Resources
Bonaldo, Duga, Pierantoni, Riva, Romanelli, BIOLOGIA E GENETICA, 4a edizione/2013 (EDISES)
Miozzo, Sirchia, Prinetti, Gervasini, BASI BIOLOGICHE DELLA VITA, 1a edizione (Elsevier Masson)
Applied physics
Course syllabus
Role of the measurement. Fundamental and derived physical quantities. The international system of the unit of measurement. Recall on vectors (addition, subtraction, factorization).
Trajectory, displacement, velocity, acceleration, uniform linear motion, uniformly accelerated motion.
Principles of dynamics, gravitational force, force field, work of a force, mechanical energy, power.
Equilibrium conditions of a material point, rigid body, pair of forces, moment of a force, moment of a pair of forces, condition of equilibrium of a rigid body, center of gravity, stability of equilibrium , levers with examples of equilibrium of human body.
Statics and Dynamics of fluids:
States of aggregation of matter, density, pressure and its units of measurement, isotropy principle, Pascal, Stevino and Archimede, buoyancy, hydraulic jacks, pressure gauges, flow rate and Hagen-Poiseuille law
Temperature, expansion thermometer, ideal gas law, heat, mechanical equivalent of calorie, specific heat, conduction, convection, radiation.
Electrostatics and currents:
Electric charge, Coulomb's law, potential and potential energy, potential difference, conductors and insulators, capacitance of a capacitor, electric current, Ohm's laws, resistor in series and in parallel, thermal effect.
Ionizing radiation, natural and artificial sources, radioactivity, decay, X-rays
Teaching methods
Lectures and frontal teaching
Teaching Resources
P. Bonaldo, C. Crisafulli, R. D'Angelo, M. Francolini, S. Grimaudo, C. Rinaldi, P. Riva, M.G. Romanelli. Elementi di biologia e genetica. EdiSESed 2019
Miozzo, Sirchia, Prinetti, Gervasini, BASI BIOLOGICHE DELLA VITA, 1a edizione (Elsevier Masson)
ELEMENTI DI FISICA Vincenzo Monaco Roberto Sacchi e Ada Solano
PRINCIPI DI FISICA per indirizzo biomedico e farmaceutico F. Borsa A. Lascialfari
Applied physics
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 15 hours
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 15 hours
Professor: Rizzi Manuela
Experimental biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Gallina Andrea