Chemistry 1

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The primary goal of the course is to provide a solid foundation in the basic concepts and facts of chemistry, particularly those needed for a successful understanding of other subjects for which chemistry is a prerequisite.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students will be able to:
1. Recognize and name both the single chemical elements and the molecules formed by them;
2. Identify the bonds and chemical interactions underlying the formation of molecules;
3. Discuss the atomic structure, the electronic configuration of the elements and the periodic table;
4. Recognize and balance the chemical equation related to a given chemical reaction;
5. Calculate the pH, describe the properties of acids and bases, the acid-base equilibria, the constitution of buffer solutions and titration reactions;
6. Balance the oxidation-reduction reactions and calculate the potential and the electrode concentrations of an electrochemical cell by using the Nernst's law.
Course syllabus and organization


Lesson period
Second semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Structure of matter: Atomic structure. Atomic and molecular weights. Isotopes. Radioactivity. Mass defect.
Quantitative chemical relationships: Balancing redox reactions. Stoichiometric calculus. The chemical equilibrium. Le Chatelier's principle. Equilibrium constants.
Acid-Base reaction: Acids and bases (Arrhenius, Broensted, Lewis theories). pH. Buffer solutions. Hydrolysis. Acid-base titrations.
Atomic structure: Bohr's atomic model. De Broglie equation. Heisenberg's principle. On Schrödinger equation. Hydrogen atom. Many-electron atoms. The "aufbau" principle and the periodic table.
The Chemical bond: Ionic bonds. VSEPR Theory. The Covalent bond. The Hydrogen bond and the weak interactions. Bonding in coordination compound. Lattice energy and hydration energy. Ionic, molecular and van der Waals crystals.
Gases: Gas laws and the equation of state for ideal and real gases. Elements of the kinetic theory of gases. Solubility.
Thermodynamics: The first, the second and the third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic functions and chemical equilibrium.
Electrochemistry: Cell potentials. Nernst's law. Electrolysis.
Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry: The biologically relevant elements.
Prerequisites for admission
1. Elements of Atomic Structure
2. Elements of Classical Thermodynamics (non-statistical)
3. Analysis 1 (differential equations, partial derivatives, Riemann integration)
Teaching methods
The teaching is provided in 32 hours of lessons and 24 of exercises, all frontal.
Teaching Resources
(1) N. J. Tro, Chimica un approccio molecolare, EDiSES
(2) A. Peloso, F. Demartin, Fondamenti ed esercizi di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Edizioni Progetto Padova
(3) David W. Oxtoby, H. P. Gillis, Alan Campion, Chimica Moderna, EDiSES
(4) Petrucci, Herring, Madura, Bissonnette, Chimica Generale, Principi ed Applicazioni Moderne, Piccin Editore, Padova
(5) Tavola Periodica degli Elementi, versione IUPAC
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of a compulsory written test lasting 2 hours. In the same session, it will be possible to view the corrected task.
The written test focuses on the topics covered during the course and includes:
- the solution of 3 exercises, having contents and difficulties similar to those faced during the lessons.
- the answer to 3 theoretical questions.
For the purposes of the evaluation, the correctly carried out fractions of each exercise and theoretical question are calculated; if 1.5 exercises and 1.5 questions have been completed correctly, the student obtains a sufficient grade.
Any additional information on the assessment methods will be explained during the course.
Practicals: 24 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Castellano Carlo


Lesson period
Second semester
If the sanitary emergency should continue, the lessons will take place remotely, mainly in synchronous mode by use of Zoom or Microsoft Teams. The asynchronous mode will be used for the study of some topics and of the slides that will be left available to students on the Ariel platform.

The program and the reference material will not change.

Assessment methods and criteria
The exam consists of a compulsory written test lasting 2 hours in presence, with distancing and quota if needed.
If the situation will not allow, it will take place remotely in the form that will be reported in the Ariel website at the end of the course.
Course syllabus
1. Why a physicist needs to know chemistry - introduction
2. Atoms and atomic structure - Review of quantum mechanics on atomic models; Electronic configuration and filling of energy levels; Atomic orbitals and quantum numbers; Chemical elements; Periodic table; Periodic Trends. Unity of mass; concentration.
3. Chemical - ionic bond (Lewis structures / octet rule), covalent, metallic, hydrogen, van der waals
4. Simple and complex molecules - Molecular mass, Molecular geometry (VSEPR theory), Molecular orbitals. Valence bond theory and hybridization.
5. Formulas and nomenclature - Oxidation number. Chemical formulas. Chemical equation; Stoichiometry. Nomenclature.
6. Thermodynamics and matter - internal energy, enthalpy, enthalpy of reaction, entropy and Gibbs energy. Structure of matter. Gas mixtures - gas equation of state; gaseous mixtures pressure and partial volume; Dalton's law.
7. Thermal equilibrium - Chemical equilibrium; Equilibrium reactions; Equilibrium Constant and Reaction Quotient; Le Chatelier's principle. Acids and Bases - Definition of acid and base; Definition and calculation of pH; solubility; equilibrium and acid-base reactions;
8. Transition and redox metals (oxidation / reduction reactions) - Redox reaction; electrochemical cells; reduction potential; Nernst equation; examples of oxidations; transition metals.
9. Chemical kinetics - Rate laws, rate of a reaction; hints to nuclear chemistry; reaction mechanisms; temperature; introduction to catalytic reactions.
10. Amino acids and proteins: an introduction to elements of biological relevance
Prerequisites for admission
1. Quantum mechanics
2. Classical thermodynamics
3. Calculus
Teaching methods
The module is divided in 32 theoretical lessons plus 24 problem-solving class. All the lectures should be face-to-face.
Teaching Resources
(1) N. J. Tro, Chemistry a molecular approach, Pearson; 5th edition (January 28, 2019)
(2) D. W. Oxtoby, H.P. Gills, et al./ Principles of modern chemistry, Brooks/Cole Ed. 7 ed. (2011)
(3) MIT OWC (open course) 5-111sc Principles-of-chemical-science-fall-2014
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment is a 2-hours written test. The test consists of two sections: 3 problem-sheets and 3 book-like questions. To get enough credits, the student should answer correctly to half problems and half questions.
Practicals: 24 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Panigati Monica
Educational website(s)
Su appuntamento
Dipartimento di Chimica, Corpo A, piano rialzato, stanza R38