Clinical nursing and research

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
INF/01 MED/01 MED/42 MED/45
Learning objectives
- Know and apply the principles and methodology of research and the critical evaluation of evidence based nursing literature
- Know and apply the principles and methodology of statistics useful for research in clinical nursing;
- Know the principles and the methodology of epidemiological research and apply them to the promotion of the health of the individual and of the community;
- Know and apply information technology methods and use commonly-used software to perform bibliographic research and data presentation and processing.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understanding:
- general and clinical nursing issues for the understanding of pediatric nursing's fields of intervention, clinical method leading to effective clinical approach intervention techniques and evidence supporting the decision making and the delivery of the pediatric nursing care;
- It and linguistic disciplines with particular focus on the English language for the understanding of the scientific nursing literature and for the exchange of general information.

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
- integrate the knowledge and skills stemming from the nursing discipline, from biomedical, psychological, socio-cultural and humanistic features to recognize the care needs of the newborn and the family and provide appropriate, effective and evidence-based pediatric nursing care;
- apply the nursing care on the basis of the reference disciplinary theoretical models to assess and diagnose health status and care needs in their physical, psychological and socio-cultural dimensions, plan goals, implement and evaluate the care provided and outcomes achieved;
- conduct a complete and systematic evaluation of data relating to the care needs of the newborn to facilitate growth, development and adaptation in health promotion, maintenance and recovery;
- analyze and accurately interpret the data collected through clinical reasoning;
- interpret and apply the results of research to nursing practice and link research paths to the theoretical development of the nursing discipline;
- provide nursing care in different care settings, both in- and out- of-hospital settings
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
In order to ensure a balanced career progression consistent with professional training, to obtain enrollment in the second year the student must have passed at least three exams related to the teaching courses, of which:
- Human anatomy and physiology
- Fundamentals of maternal and child care
To obtain enrollment in the third year, the student must have passed at least eight exams, of which, in addition to the exams necessary to obtain enrollment in the second year:
- Pharmacology and Anesthesiology
- Pediatric Sciences II
- Neonatology I
Passing the annual internship exam is a necessary and mandatory condition for enrollment the following year
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written test: multiple choice questions and open questions
Course syllabus
· Lesson 1: Course and assessment methods description; Introduction to the spreadsheet and execution of copy and paste operations, formatting cells, algebraic operations
· Lesson 2: Spreadsheet for the execution of operations that allow to automate on the basis of criteria:,, conta.valori; execute filters on the data, execute increasing and decreasing orders
· Lesson 3:Spreadsheet for the representation of data by graphs
· Lesson 4: Introduction and tutorial with word processing program
· Lesson 5: Introduction and tutorial with slides presentation program
Teaching methods
Interactive frontal lectures, exercises in critical reading of scientific articles, evaluation of statistical methods and interpretation of results
Medical statistics
Course syllabus
1. Data collection:
- Inter and intra-individual variability
- How to describe synthetically a variable phenomenon
- Population and Sample: definition
- Sampling methods in medical fields
- Observational study and experimental study
- Specific terminology and definitions: randomization, placebo, simple and double blindness, ethics committee
2. Instruments for data synthesis: tables and graphs
- Numerical values and modalities of a variable
- Characteristics of qualitative and quantitative variables
- Building and reading frequency distributions and two-variable tables
- Calculation and use of percentage frequencies and cumulated frequencies
- Proportions, ratios and rates: difference between prevalence and incidence
- The rules for a correct graphical representation of a set of data
3. Instruments for data synthesis: position, dispersion and association measures.
- Measures of location: mode, median, arithmetic mean and geometric mean
- Characteristics of measures of location
- Measures of variability: range, interquartile range, standard deviation, coefficient of variation
- Characteristics of the measures of variability
- Calculation and use of percentiles
- How to evaluate the association between two qualitative variables and between two quantitative variables: linear correlation coefficient and concordance indices
4. Relationship between location and dispersion measures: the "form" of the frequency distribution
- How to evaluate the asymmetry of a frequency distribution
- The characteristics of the Gaussian distribution
- Calculation and use of z-scores
- Meaning of confidence intervals
5. Measures of association between risk factor and disease
- The meaning of "risk" in the medical / health field
- Risk indicators: Absolute Risk, Attributable Risk, Relative Risk, Odds Ratio
- Similarities and differences between relative risk and attributable risk and between relative risk and odds ratio
6. The clinical decision: probability as a measure of uncertainty
- How sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a screening test are estimated
- How to interpret the results of a screening test: SpPin and SnNout rules - statistical significance and clinical relevance
Teaching methods
Interactive frontal lectures, exercises in critical reading of scientific articles, evaluation of statistical methods and interpretation of results
Teaching Resources
P.Chiari, D.Mosci, E.Naldi. L'infermieristica basata su prove di efficacia. Guida operativa per l'Evidence Based Nursing. McGraw-Hill
P.Lantieri, D.Risso, G.Ravera. Statistica Medica per le professioni sanitarie. McGraw-Hill
Hygiene and public health
Course syllabus
Epidemiological methodology
1. Epidemiological data sources
- Demographic data: census, age pyramid, population registers
- Health data: notification of infectious diseases, hospital sources, ad hoc investigations, pathology registers
- Other sources
2. Use of frequency measures and health indicators
3. Determinants of health and disease
4. Risk factor and disease
- Causality
- Risk measures
- The association measures: Relative Risk, Attributable Risk, Odds Ratio
5. Types of epidemiological studies
- Observational studies for the formulation of hypotheses: ecological or descriptive studies and cross-sectional studies
- Analytical studies for hypothesis testing: cohort studies and case-control studies
- Experimental studies to validate the hypothesis: randomized controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled population studies
- Practical application of risk measures in Public Health
6. Screening: meaning and application in Public Health
7. Epidemiological surveillance
Teaching methods
Interactive frontal lectures, exercises in critical reading of scientific articles, evaluation of statistical methods and interpretation of results
Teaching Resources
F Auxilia, M Pontello. Igiene e Sanità Pubblica. I fondamenti della prevenzione. Piccin Editore.
C Signorelli. Elementi di Metodologia epidemiologica. Ed SEU.
Nursing sciences: general, clinical and paediatric
Course syllabus
1) Nursing research process
Nursing Research, areas of application, actors of the research process
Identification of the main characteristics and phases of a research protocol: different study designs and ethical implications
2) Evidence based practice (EBP)
Definition, EBP hierarchy and sources
Keyword identification
Literature research strategy and retrieval of the source: Databases and other sources.
3) Critical analysis of research articles
Method of analysis of a research article by specific check lists
Summary of results obtained for the application in clinical practice.
4) Application of research results in professional practice: procedures, protocols, guidelines and diagnostic-therapeutic-assistance pathways. Meaning, purpose and structure (title, authors, last revision/numbering, content, cited references). Research protocol aimed at the realization of the thesis.
Exercises (eg critical reading of the hospital procedures, protocols, guidelines and diagnostic-therapeutic-assistance pathways, produced and applied by the welfare community. Reading of research articles. Elaboration of the research protocol aimed at the realization of the thesis).

Theme Area 5 Spread culture of breastfeeding and proper nutrition for mother and child through effective communication..
Make a bibliographic research on infants and children feeding, knowing how to keep up to date and collaborate in research.
Use of search engines, literature critical evaluation, continuous updating system
bSupporting women to make informed decisions.
Teaching methods
Interactive frontal lectures, exercises in critical reading of scientific articles, evaluation of statistical methods and interpretation of results
Teaching Resources
C. Sironi: Introduzione alla ricerca infermieristica. I fondamenti teorici e gli elementi di base per comprenderla nella realtà italiana.
Hygiene and public health
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 1
Lessons: 15 hours
Professor: Romano' Luisa
INF/01 - INFORMATICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Milos Roberto
Medical statistics
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Casazza Giovanni
Nursing sciences: general, clinical and paediatric
MED/45 - NURSING - University credits: 2
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Accardi Roberto