Conventional radiology: Imaging and techniques

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
FIS/07 MED/36 MED/50
Learning objectives
Purpose of this course is:
- to provide the basis for understanding the X-ray equipment functioning, by recalling the physical principles involved in the production of X-rays and describing the structure and characteristics of the different types of equipment used in traditional diagnostic radiology
- to explain the physical principles underlying the image formation
- to illustrate the main traditional radiology projections
- to introduce the basic principles of the medical investigation methods in breast imaging.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end, students must:
- know standard radiology equipment architecture and operation and be able to apply appropriate radiation protection principles
- be able to contribute to the optimization of traditional diagnostic examinations
- know the physical principles underlying images formation in diagnostic radiology
- know the main traditional radiographic projections of the skeletal and pulmonary systems parameters, the exposure parameters and correctness criteria
- know how to use a correct terminology in radiology about both the description and the use of the equipment, as well as about the operational procedures.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Didactic methods.
Half of the students, according to pre-established shifts, will participate from time to time in face-to-face lessons in classrooms suitably equipped for the Covid emergency, where safety conditions allow it.
Furthermore, to allow them to be used both in synchronous and asynchronous mode for students not present in the classroom, the lessons will be held simultaneously on the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both in synchrony on the basis of the first semester and in asynchronous mode, because they will be registered and left on the same platform available to students not present in the classroom.
Lessons may also include pre-recorded materials.
If the situation worsens, the lessons will be delivered through the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both in synchronous according to the scheduled time and asynchronously, because they are recorded through the same platform.

Program and reference material.
The program and reference material will not change. The teaching material (slides displayed during the lectures) will be available on the Ariel platform dedicated to teaching.

Methods for verifying learning and evaluation criteria.
The exam will take place in writing in the presence or in the event of an aggravation of the pandemic, with the moodle + seb + webconference modality to be activated in collaboration with the Center for educational innovation and multimedia technologies of the University of Milan.
Prerequisites for admission
In-depth knowledge of the contents of the courses "Basis of Phisics and Mathematics" and "Morphological and functional Basis of Life".
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment of learning takes place through the final exam, which verifies the acquisition of the knowledge and skills expected for the lessons of the integrated course through a written test lasting 2 hours. The test is based on 6 open-end questions, 2 questions for each module. The exam is considered passed if the student has satisfactorily answered each question and achieved a minimum score of 18 points in the written test.
The booking on the UNIMIA portal, within the dates established for each appeal, is mandatory for the examination.
Radiation physics: conventional radiology equipment
Course syllabus
Electromagnetic radiation: propagation and spectrum.
Limits of classical physics: outline of quantum mechanics.
Outline of atomic structure.
X-rays: production. Principles of operation of the x-ray tube.
Characteristics of the X spectrum
Interaction between X-ray and matter and the nature of contrast.
Image formation principles.
Teaching methods
The course is divided into a series of lectures with slide shows in Power Point. The lectures slides are uploaded to the Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
BUSHONG: Radiologic Science for technologists - Elsevier Mosby
Imaging and radiologic anatomy in conventional radiology
Course syllabus
X-ray anatomy of the chest.
The heart and the mediastinum: anatomy and causes of pathology.
Skeleton: anatomy, systematic anatomy.
Lung parenchyma lesions: pathology and radiological pictures.
Elementary bony lesions.
RX of the abdomen.
Inflammatory joint and bone lesions.
Joint and bone neoplastic lesions.
Teaching methods
The course is divided into a series of lectures with slide shows in Power Point. The lectures slides are uploaded to the Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
BUSHONG: Radiologic Science for technologists - Elsevier Mosby
Conventional radiology techniques
Course syllabus
Physical principles of radiation - Equipment.
Nature of X-rays
X-ray formation inside the x-ray tube.
Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the x-ray beam.
Interactions of radiation with matter: Compton effect and photoelectric effect.
X-ray tube: focal spot.
The trocoscopio.
The stand.
The remote control.
The orthopantomograph.
Traditional analogue radiology (reinforcement screens and films).
Digital radiology: the CR (plate) system.
Digital radiology: the DR (flat pannel) system.
Fundamental parts of the radiological equipment: x-ray tube, collimators, radiological table, sensitive plane, ionization chambers, anti-diffusion grids, image intensifier.
Principles of radiological technique.
Concept of mA, kV, s.
One-point technique, two points, three points.
Contact technique.
Using the potter
Use of ionization chambers.
Use of fires.
High kilovoltage technique.
Centering techniques.
The main radiation and diffuse radiation.
Object magnification.
Object deformation.
Shading of the object.
The planes of space.
Space terminology.
Radiological projections.
Radiological study (standard projections and particular studies) and radiological anatomy of the skeletal segments.
Skull (standard projections, study of the sellar region, study of the facial massif, study of the occipital scale).
Cervical (standard, oblique, dynamic projections, study of the tooth of the axis).
Dorsal (standard, oblique, dynamic projections, under load).
Lumbar (standard projections, oblique, dynamic, under load).
Sacred (standard projections).
Scapulo-humeral track (standard, projected, oblique, thoracic projections).
Homer (standard projections).
Elbow (standard projections).
Radio and ulna (standard projections).
Carpus (standard and targeted projections).
Mano (standard and targeted projections).
Coasts (standard projections).
Clavicle (standard projections).
Sterno (standard projections).
Basin (standard projections, study of iliac wings, study of sacroiliac joints).
Coxo-femoral joint (standard, semiaxial, axial projections).
Femur (standard projections).
Knee (standard and under load projections).
Tibia and fibula (standard projections).
Tibio-tarsic (standard, oblique and targeted projections).
Foot (standard projections, targeted, under load).
X-ray of the column in its entirety.
Radiological studies in first-aid patients.
Radiological studies in outpatients.
Radiological studies on minors.
Radiological studies on women of childbearing age.
Overview of the information for the study and the consent of the patient.
Radiological study of the breast.
Teaching methods
The course is divided into a series of lectures with slide shows in Power Point. The lectures slides are uploaded to the Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
PASSARIELLO: Elementi di tecnica radiologica e diagnostica per immagini
Conventional radiology techniques
Lessons: 20 hours
Imaging and radiologic anatomy in conventional radiology
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Petralia Giuseppe
Radiation physics: conventional radiology equipment
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Del Favero Elena