Diagnostic Techniques in Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Clinical Pathology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/12 MED/05
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with a general understanding of most of the diagnostic procedures underlying the main pathologies faced by laboratory medicine at the clinical biochemical level and from the point of view of the clinical pathologist.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
1. know and apply the main clinical biochemistry and clinical pathology procedures used for diagnostic purposes
2. understand the meaning and the biological and physiopathological assumptions underlying the above procedures.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

- The program of the course will not be modified
- Teaching resources will not be modified
- Teaching method: on-line teaching on Microsoft Teams platform
- Assessment method: written on-line exam
Prerequisites for admission
To take this exam, you must have knowledge in: Physiology, General Pathology and Immunology, General Biochemistry.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam of the course in Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Clinical Pathology consists of a multiple-choice test or an open answer on the topics covered in class. Any additional information on the assessment methods will be explained during the course.
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
Course syllabus
1) Hormonology and related tests:
- General concepts (synthesis, release, action, receptor mechanisms, etc.)
- Hypothalamic hormones (TRH, etc.)
- Hormones g. anterior pituitary [TSH, FSH, LH, prolactin, growth hormone (GH), adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)]
- Hormones g. posterior pituitary (ADH and oxytocin)
- Thyroid hormones
- Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
- Adrenal cortical hormones (aldosterone, cortisol, DHEA)
- Adrenal medullary hormones
- Ovarian hormones (estrogens, progesterone, activine, inhibine, relaxin)
- Testosterone
- Gastro-intestinal hormones (gastrin, ghrelin, secretin, GIP)
- Renal hormones (vitamin D, erythropoietin, renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone)
- Hepatic hormones (IGF 1 and 2)
- Hormones of adipose tissue (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNFα)
- Catecholamines and serotonin
2) Laboratory and pituitary alterations (excess and deficiency of GH, hyperprolactinemia, ACTH and gonadotropin alterations)
3) Laboratory and disorders of the adrenal gland (hypofunction, hyperfunction, adrenogenital syndrome, hyperaldosteronism)
4) Laboratory and reproductive disorders (alterations of male development - hypogonadism, development of the female reproductive system and its abnormalities, male and female infertility)
5) The laboratory in the management of monoclonal gammopathies
6) General principles and optimization of the clinical use of biomarkers in oncology
7) Laboratory in renal disease:
- Glomerular damage markers and evaluation of glomerular filtration rate
- Tubular damage markers
8) Laboratory and diabetes mellitus (type I, type II, gestational and complication monitoring)
9) Laboratory and risk of cardiovascular disease (lipoproteins, apoproteins, C-reactive protein, homocysteine)
10) Laboratory in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and in the evaluation of cardiac function
11) Laboratory in disorders of hydro-electrolyte balance and acid-base metabolism
12) Laboratory and hepatopathies
- Markers of liver function
- Markers of liver damage (acute, chronic, fibrosis, cirrhosis)
- Cholestasis markers
13) Laboratory in gastro-intestinal and pancreatic diseases (celiac disease, IBD / IBS, pancreatitis, evaluation of exocrine pancreatic function)
14) Laboratory in bone diseases:
- Alterations in mineral metabolism
- Alterations in regulatory hormones (PTH, vitamin D, FGF23, calcitonin)
- Alterations in bone remodeling
15) Clinical biochemistry of hemoglobin, bilirubin, iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin
16) Laboratory for alterations of iron metabolism
17) Biochemical monitoring of drugs:
- General pharmacokinetic concepts
- Antiepileptic drugs
- Antibiotics (aminoglycosidics, vancomycin, chloramphenicol)
- Antineoplastics and immunosuppressants (methotrexate, busulfan, tacrolimus, ciclosporin, sirolimus, everolimus, mycophenolic acid)
- Other drugs (digoxin, lithium, theophylline)
18) Mass spectrometry in clinical diagnostics
19) Pharmacogenetics with specific examples (cytochromes)
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons supported by visual means with slides provided on Ariel support.
Teaching Resources
1) Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry & Molecular Biology, VIII ed., Elsevier 2019.
Clinical pathology
Course syllabus
∙ The blood count
∙ Laboratory and coagulation
∙ The chemical-physical and morphological examination of the urine
∙ Stool examination
∙ Laboratory and autoimmune diseases
∙ Synovial fluid diagnostics
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons supported by visual means with slides provided on Ariel support.
Teaching Resources
Italo Antonozzi, Elio Gulletta, Medicina di laboratorio. Logica e patologia clinica, Ed. PICCIN, Padova 2019.
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
Lessons: 40 hours
Clinical pathology
MED/05 - CLINICAL PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
By appointment via e-mail
LITA Segrate - Via F.lli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate (MI)
Monday 10am-13pm
LITA Segrate