Employment Relations in the Public Sector

A.Y. 2021/2022
9
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
SPS/09
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to pursue the following objectives: 1) to provide the conceptual and analytical tools for the study of employment and industrial relations in Italy and in other European countries (France, Germany, UK, Nordic Countries, others), with particular attention to their recent evolution; 2) to analyze the specificity of the regulation of labour in the public sector compared with the private sector, and to undesrtand the reasons of such specificity; within this framework, to examine also the peculiarities of labour disputes in the public services, their analytical implications and the regulatory problems they raise in Italy and other European countries; 3) to address the processes of reform of public sector employment relations that started in Italy and many European countries in the 1990s, in connection with a wider process of public sector restructuring (with some references also to extra-European countries like the USA, Japan, Australia).
Expected learning outcomes
To acquire critical mastery of the essential conceptual tools for the analysis of employment relations in Italy and in Europe, with particular reference to employment relations in the public services, and knowledge of the actors, processes and past and recent dynamics of such relations. To acquire knowledge of recent reform processes of public service employment relations in Italy and other European countries and of their shortcomings. Students will acquire the ability to use the specific terminology of employment relations research and to critically examine employment relations issues in general and specifically in the public services.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Third trimester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation
Course syllabus
The first part of the course will introduce the basic concepts and analytical tools for the study of employment and industrial relations. The focus is on the Italian experience, but the experience of other European countries will be considered as well.
Topics include:
-Employment and industrial relations: definition of the object and of the field of study.
-The regulation of the employment relationship and the ambivalent relations with the market.
-The system of industrial relations: a synthetic analytical scheme (actors, context, methods, rules). Industrial relations as a process.
- The organizations of interest representation: trade unions and employers' associations.
- Workplace representation bodies.
- Collective bargaining as the main method of regulation of the employment relationship: institutions and practices in Italy and other European countries.
-Social concertation and social pacts. The tripartite agreement of July 1993 in Italy.
- The 2009 reform of the bargaining model in Italy and recent evolutions. The inter-confederal agreements of January 2014 and March 2018.
-Industrial conflict.

The second part will examine the specificities of employment and industrial relations in the public sectors in Italy with particular reference to the cycles of reform started in the 1990s (1992-93; 1997-99; 2008-09, 2015-2017). The Italian experience will be compared with that of other European (especially France, Germany, Great Britain, Nordic countries) and non-European countries.
Topics include:
-The specificity of employment and industrial relations in the public sector: historic and theoretical reasons.
-The regulation of public sector employment in Italy and Europe 1950-1980: from unilateral to joint regulation. The Italian anomaly of the law 93/1983.
-Changing context and new reform pressures in the 1980s and 1990s.
-The 'New Public Management': concepts and implications for the regulation of the public administration and of public service employment relations.
- 'Privatization' and 'contractualization' of the employment relationship: the reforms of the 1990s (1992-93; 1997-99), their implementation and outcomes. Comparisons with the private sector.
-The 2008-09 reform ('riforma Brunetta').
-Public sector trade unions in Italy and other European and non-European countries. The issue of the regulation of unions' representativeness in the Italy.
-Public services and 'tertiary conflict': analytical and regulatory implications. The Italian experience in comparative perspective.

The third part will examine in particular two topics. The effects on public sector employment relations of the 2008 economic and sovereign debt crisis, in Italy and other European countries. The regulation of the employment relationship of managerial staff.
Topics include:
-The limited implementation of the 'Brunetta' reform during the crisis: suspension of national collective bargaining and wage freeze after 2010; the 2015-17 reform ('Madia reform').
-Quantitative and qualitative effects of the crisis on public sector employment in Europe: a 'fundamental transformation' of public sector employment relations?
-Prerogatives and limits of managerial autonomy in HRM matters.
-The regulation of top-level public managers: from the 'first' and 'second' privatization to the 2008-09 reform to the (failed) 2016-17 reform.

The fourth part of the course is aimed at investigating the recent trajectories of transformation of labour relations in the public sector in the light of the pressures exerted by outsourcing practices, in a comparative perspective.
Topics include:
- Outsourcing as an object of study and defining aspects.
-Theoretical and operational profiles of New Public Management, with a specific focus on market mechanisms.
-From make-or-buy choice to global value chains: theoretical approaches underlying the practices of outsourcing.
- Advantages and limitations of outsourcing.
- Outsourcing of public services, industrial relations, and working conditions. The convergence/divergence debate and the empirical repercussions in a comparative key. An analysis of three national cases.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic knowledges acquired in a bachelor level degree, preferably in history, social, economic, political or law studies.
Teaching methods
Mostly lectures on the concepts and analytical tools of the discipline, with discussions of pertinent cases or events of the Italian or comparative experience. In the final part of the course, attending students will have the option to make short, public presentations on a topic dealt with in classes or on other pertinent topics agreed upon with the teacher. The evaluation of this presentation will concur to the final grade.
Teaching Resources
FIRST PART
Bordogna L. e Pedersini R. (2019), Relazioni industriali. L'esperienza italiana nel contesto internazionale, Bologna, Il Mulino, Chapters 1-4 and 6.

Slides discussed in classes and uploaded on ARIEL.

Documents uploaded on ARIEL:
Tripartite Agreement "Protocollo sulla politica dei redditi e dell'occupazione, sugli assetti contrattuali, sulle politiche del lavoro e sul sostegno al sistema produttivo", 23-July-1993;

Tripartite framework agreement ('separato') on the reform of the bargaining model of 22 January 2009 and inter-confederal agreement ('separato') Confindustria of 15 April 2009.
Inter-confederale (unitary) agreement of 28 June 2011 and art. 8, Law 148/2011.

Unitary inter-confederal agreements Confindustria-Cgil, Cisl, Uil on the representation system and the bargaining model of 10 January 2014 and 9 March 2018.


SECOND PART
Bordogna L. e Pedersini R. (2019), Relazioni industriali. L'esperienza italiana nel contesto internazionale, Bologna, Il Mulino, Chapters 7 and 5.

Suggested reading
Dell'Aringa C., Della Rocca G. (a cura di), Pubblici dipendenti. Una nuova riforma?, Rubbettino Editore, Soveria Mannelli, 2007, capitoli 2, 3.
Bordogna L. (2008), "Moral Hazard, Transaction Costs and the Reform of Public Service Employment Relations", in European Journal of Industrial Relations, 4/2008, pp. 381-400.

Slides discussed in classes and uploaded on ARIEL.

Documents uploaded on ARIEL:
-Decreto legislativo 165/2001: http://www.parlamento.it/parlam/leggi/deleghe/01165dl.htm
-L. 15/2009
-Decreto legislativo 150/2009
-L. 146/1990 e L. 83/2000.

THIRD PART
Bach S., Bordogna L. (2013), "Reframing public service employment relations. The impact of economic crisis and the new EU governance", in European Journal of Industrial Relations, 4/2013, pp. 279-294.
Bach S., Bordogna L. (eds) (2016) Public Service Management and Employment Relations in Europe. Emerging from the Crisis, London: Routledge, capitoli 1, 4, 5, 6, 8.
Bordogna L. (2009), Per una maggiore autonomia dell'alta dirigenza pubblica: una proposta, WP C.S.D.L.E. "Massimo D'Antona".IT - 92/2009, http://aei.pitt.edu/103182/1/92.pdf

Slides discussed in classes uploaded on ARIAL.

Documents uploaded on ARIEL:
-D.L. 90/2014 e L. 114/2014
- L. 124/2015

FOURTH PART
Hood C. (1991), A Public Management for All Seasons?, Public Administration, 69(1): 3-19.
Cepiku D. (2006), L'Esternalizzazione Nelle Amministrazioni Pubbliche: Teorie, Politiche ed Esperienze a Livello Internazionale, Azienda Pubblica, 4: 415-442.
Mori A. (2017), The consequence of public services outsourcing for work and employment conditions: the mediating effect of national regimes, European Journal of Industrial Relations, 23(4): 347 -364.
Mori A. (2020), Traiettorie di mercatizzazione e distribuzione dei rischi nell'esternalizzazione di servizi pubblici in Europa, Stato e Mercato, n. 117, 447-482.
Bach S. and Bordogna L. (2011), Varieties of new public management or alternative models? The reform of public service employment relations in industrialized democracies, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(11): 2281-2294.
Bordogna L. (2008), Moral Hazard, Transaction Costs and the Reform of Public Service Employment Relations, European Journal of Industrial Relations, 14(4): 381-400.
- Sentenze Corte Costituzionale n. 178/2015 e n. 251/2016
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written test, including from 4 to 6 open questions. The exam lasts 60 minutes and aims at evaluating the acquisition of the concepts and analytical tools of the discipline and the ability to apply them to concrete cases, referred to the Italian or comparative experience. The test regards the topics dealt with in classes, the reference texts, and the slides and materials uploaded on ARIEL. Attending students have the option to give short, public presentations during classes on topics agreed upon with the teacher, whose evaluation will concur to the final grade.
SPS/09 - ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY OF WORK AND ORGANIZATIONS - University credits: 9
Lessons: 60 hours
Professor: Mori Anna
Professor(s)