Environmental Genetics

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The aim of the course is to introduce the student to the knowledge concerning genetic material, the laws of heredity and the mechanisms of translation of genetic information for the monitoring and conservation of genetic diversity, both in domestic and wild species.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will have basic knowledge on genetic material, on the laws of heredity and on the mechanisms of translation of genetic information. He will have skills in the use of tools for genetic manipulation and the use of genetic tools for the monitoring and conservation of genetic diversity, both in domestic and wild species.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation
Course syllabus
Transmission of characters - Mendelian inheritance: segregation and independent assortment of characters. Multiple alleles. Statistical processing of Mendelian segregation. Analysis of Mendelian inheritance: the pedigree. Sex-linked inheritance. Genetic determination of sex.
Physical basis of inheritance - Chromosomes, mitosis, meiosis and biological cycles of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Cell cycle. Identification of DNA as genetic material. Structure and replication of DNA.
Chromosomal theory of inheritance - concatenation and recombination. Meiotic cross-over. Mapping of genes in diploid organisms. Map distance and construction of genetic maps.
Quantitative genetics - Discrete and continuous traits. Analysis of QTL. Description of quantitative characters
Population genetics - Genetic structure of populations. Equilibrium and Hardy-Weinberg law. Variation in gene frequencies: mutation, selection, migration and genetic drift.

Gene function - Metabolic chains and one gene-one enzyme hypothesis. Interaction between genes. Complementation. Intragenic recombination.
Genetics of microorganisms - Haploid bacteria. Mutants in bacteria and their selection. Gene transfer. Plasmids. Factor F and its characteristics. Factor F' and construction of partial diploids.
Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes - Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structure. RNA synthesis. Coding and non-coding RNAs. RNA maturation in eukaryotes.
Genetic code and process of translation - Characteristics of the genetic code. Process of translation.
Changes in genome structure - Gene mutations: molecular basis of mutations and their frequency. Reversion and suppression of mutations. Germline and somatic mutations. Chromosomal mutations: deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations. Genomic mutations: euploidy and aneuploidy. Autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy. Mutant agents and DNA repair mechanisms.
Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Epigenetics and examples of how genes and environment modify phenotype.
Prerequisites for admission
Students must have passed the following exams:
General Biology, General Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Microbiology.
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lessons realized through the projection of slides and films. The material related to the course will be made available through the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
· Binelli & Ghisotti + AA.VV. Genetica, Edises (2017)
Benito, Espino. Genetica, Piccin (2015)
· Snustad e Simmons, Principi di Genetica, EdiSes, 5 ed. 2014
· Russell, Genetica, Un approccio molecolare, Pearson, 4 ed. 2014
· Griffith et al. Genetica, 7° ed. Zanichelli 2013
Assessment methods and Criteria
The examination is intended to assess the student's ability to apply the concepts learned during the course. The exam consists of a written test that will include multiple choice questions and genetic problem solving with elements of theory. The questions cover the entire subject matter of the course, available time 1.5-2 hours. Any additional information on exam and assessment methods will be explained at the beginning of the course.
BIO/18 - GENETICS - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Upon appointment
V floor Tower A, Via Celoria 26