General chemistry with elements of physical chemistry

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The aim of the teaching is to provide a knowledge of basic chemistry, preparatory to the subsequent teachings of Organic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry. More specifically, the teaching will provide the minimum tools necessary for understanding the chemical language and basic topics (atoms, chemical bonds, chemical reactions, chemical, thermodynamic and electrochemical equilibrium). This basic knowledge constitutes the necessary tools for understanding the chemical language of life, an indispensable element for the future biological studies.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the teaching, the student will have to reach skills relating to the structure of matter and chemical bonds. The concepts learned will guide the graduate to work competently in all phases of the experimental and analytical management of chemical processes. In particular, the basic concepts of nomenclature, chemical formulas and stoichiometry, and the concepts concerning solutions, dissociations in solution, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, pH and buffer solutions must be applied.
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for the academic year 2021/2022 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Atomic structure: Nuclides, isotopes and chemical elements. Molecular formula and formula unit. Atomic mass and molecular mass. Mole and Avogadro constant. Quantization of energy and photons. Atomic models. Orbitals and quantum numbers. Electronic configuration of the elements. Periodic table of elements and periodic properties.
Chemical bond and molecular geometry: Lewis structures. Ionic and covalent bonds. Electronegativity and bond polarity. Molecular geometry: VSEPR and valence bond theory. Intermolecular interactions.
Formulas and systematic nomenclature.
Solutions: Concentration. Dilution. Molar fraction. Colligative properties.
Chemical reactions: Chemical reactions and chemical equations. Balance and principle of mass conservation. Net ionic equation and principle of charge conservation. Chemical equilibrium: equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Le Chatelier's principle. Reactions in aqueous solution: electrolytes and non-electrolytes, precipitation reactions and solubility equilibria, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions.
Gaseous state: Pressure and temperature. Ideal gas law. Molar volume. Ideal gas constant. Gaseous mixtures: partial pressure and partial volume, Dalton's law.
Acids and bases: Definitions of acid and base. Acid-base equilibria. Calculation of pH. Buffer solutions. Titration curves.
Chemical thermodynamics: State functions. First principle of thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Standard conditions. Second principle of thermodynamics. Entropy. Gibbs free energy.
Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and standard potentials. Cell potential and equilibrium constant. Nernst's equation.
Prerequisites for admission
Teaching methods
Lecture-style lessons.
Teaching Resources
Raymond Chang, Jason Overby "Fondamenti di chimica generale (3a edizione)" McGraw-Hill, 2020.
Alessandro Caselli, Silvia Rizzato, Francesca Tessore "Stechiometria (5a edizione)" EdiSES, 2015.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Examination consists of a written test including various exercises and problems similar to those presented in class and extensively exemplified in Ariel.
CHIM/02 - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours

M - Z

Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
Program information:
Electrons in Atoms: Atomic particles and their properties. Chemical Elements. Atomic Weights, Formula Weights and Molecular Weights. The Avogadro Constant and the concept of the Mole. Quantum Theory. The Bohr Atom. The Uncertainty Principle. Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals. Electron Spin. Multielectron Atoms. Electron Configurations of the Elements.
The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table. Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table. Periodic properties: Metals and Nonmetals, Atomic Radius, Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity.
Chemical Bonding: Lewis theory. Ionic and Covalent Bonding. Electronegativity. Lewis Structures. Resonance. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. VSEPR Theory and Molecular Shapes. Introduction to the Valence Bond Theory. Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals. Intermolecular forces.
Formulas and systematic nomenclature: Oxidations States. Systematic Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds.
Solutions: Solution Concentration. Solution Dilution. Vapour Pressures of Solutions. Freezing Point. Depression and Boiling Point Elevation, Osmotic pressure.
Chemical Reactions: Chemical reactions and the Chemical Equation. Balancing. Determining the Limiting Reagent. Chemical Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant Expression. The reaction Quotient. Le Chatelier's Principle. Reactions in aqueous solutions: electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, Precipitation Reactions, Acid-Base Reactions, Oxidation-Reduction Reactions.
Gases: The concept of Pressure and absolute Temperature. The Gas Laws: Boyle's law, Charles's Law and Avogadro's Law The Ideal Gas Equation. Mixtures of gases: partial pressure and partial volume. Dalton's Law and Amagat's Law. Real gas.
Acids and Bases: Arrhenius Theory. Bronsted-Lowry Theory. Strong Acids and Strong Bases. Self-ionization of water. Definition of pH and pOH. Weak Acids and Weak Bases. Polyprotic Acids. Hydrolysis. Buffer Solutions. Neutralization reactions and Titration Curves.
Thermochemistry: Functions of State. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Entropy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Standard Free Energy Change. Free Energy Change and Equilibrium.
Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells, standard reduction potentials
Prerequisites for admission
There are no prerequisites other than high-school level mathematics (algebra, first and second-degree equations, logarithms) and physical/natural science.
Teaching methods
Teaching Mode:
Traditional Lectures: Interactive presentations partially supported by projected lecture slides. Attendance is highly recommended. Copies of the lecture slides, including the homework problems, will be made available on the Ariel web site.
Smart interactive learning: the lectures will be conducted by integration of digital technologies (Exam manager; Slido...)
Teaching Resources
Copies of the lecture slides, including the homework problems, will be made available on the Ariel web site (
Recommended Book:
- R. Chang, Fondamenti di Chimica Generale, McGraw-Hill
- N. J. Tro, Chimica Un approccio molecolare, EdiSES
- Petrucci; Herring; Madura; Bissonnette CHIMICA GENERALE PRINCIPI ED APPLICAZIONI MODERNE, Editore: Piccin
- J. Kotz John, P. Treichel jr., G.C. Weaver, CHIMICA, Editore: Edises
Exercise book:
- A. Caselli, S. Rizzato, F. Tessore "Stechiometria dal testo di M. Freni e A. Sacco" Editore: Eises
- P. D'Arrigo, A. Famulari , C. Gambarotti , M. Scotti «Chimica. Esercizi e casi pratici» EdiSES
- A. Del Zotto «Esercizi di chimica generale» EdiSES
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is written (3 hours) and divided into three parts:

A) Basic knowledge on chemical science [nomenclature, identification and classification of chemical species]: 10 questions (T/F test + MCQ + word completion test)
B) Description of fundamental properties of atoms, molecules and chemical compounds: 6 questions (open-ended questions)
C) Problem-solving ability and application skills: 4 exercises (stoichiometry, pH / solubility / redox ...)

A minimum score of 18/30 both in part A and in the average marks for parts A / B and C is compulsory to pass the test.
CHIM/02 - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Di Carlo Gabriele
Every day from 10 am to 4 pm by agreeing an appointment by e-mail
Dipartimento di Chimica – Corpo A – Piano rialzato – Stanza R36