General Pathology, Immunology and Hystory of Medicine

A.Y. 2021/2022
6
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
MED/02 MED/04
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide the basic notions to:
- understand the pathological bases of the diseases and the alterations of the general functional control mechanisms in pathological conditions.
- understand, describe and recognize the etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms of the main pathological conditions
- describe the different methodological approaches that have characterized the evolution of medical-surgical thought and practice, the most significant scientific discoveries that have improved the life of mankind and the main sources for the History of Laboratory Medicine, knowledge that will allow the Student to acquire their own professional identity.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student has skills related to the fundamental principles of etiology and pathogenesis; to the main reversible and irreversible cellular and tissue alterations; to the molecular and cellular bases of acute, chronic and reparative inflammatory response; to the specific mechanisms of the adaptive immune response, its defensive aspects and possible pathological consequences; to the etiopathogenesis of neoplastic transformation, progression to malignancy and metastasis
At the end of the History of Medicine course the Student has a good knowledge of the evolution of thought, techniques and instrumentation conceived and used in Medicine and Surgery, important for understanding the birth and evolution of Laboratory Medicine. Moreover, thanks to the skill to use historical sources, the student acquires a better professional identity.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
- The program of the course will not be modified
- Teaching resources will not be modified
- Teaching method: on-line teaching on Microsoft Teams platform
- Assessment method: oral exam on Microsoft Teams platform
Prerequisites for admission
Basics of Biology, Histology, Human Anatomy, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physiology
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is oral and consists of an interview on all the topics covered in the course, aimed at ascertaining that the student is able to understand, describe and recognize the etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms of the main pathological conditions, as well as having good knowledge of the evolution of thought, techniques and instruments used in Medicine and Surgery, to understand the birth and evolution of Laboratory Medicine
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Course syllabus
COMPONENTS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
∙ Cells and tissues
ANTIBODY
∙ Structure
∙ Effector functions
MATURATION OF B LYMPHOCYTES AND EXPRESSION OF GENES OF IMMUNOGLOBULINES
∙ Generation of B cell diversity
THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX
∙ Diversity of MHC molecules and gene polymorphism
∙ MHC system and rejection of transplanted tissues
∙ Structure, function and distribution of MHC class I and II molecules
ANTIGEN PROCESSING AND LYMPHOCYTE PRESENTATION T
∙ Extracellular origin of Ag, endosomal fragmentation and MHC II-associated presentation by professional APCs
∙ Intracellular origin of the Ag, cytosolic fragmentation and MHC I-associated presentation by virus-infected cells
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND LYMPHOCYT ACTIVATION T
∙ The TCR: structure and generation of diversity
∙ Accessory molecules CD4 and CD8
∙ Early biochemical events induced by the link between antigen and TCR
EFFECTIVE MECHANISMS OF IMMUNITY CELL MEDIATED CD4 TH1, CD4 TH2, CD8
ACTIVATION OF LYMPHOCYTES B
∙ Thymus-dependent antigens
∙ Thymus-independent antigens
IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY AND SECONDARY IMMUNITY RESPONSE
∙ B memory cells
∙ T memory cells
FAILURE OF BODY DEFENSES
∙ Elusion and subversion of the immune system by pathogens
∙ Hereditary immunodeficiency diseases
∙ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HYPER-REACTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (IPERSENSIBILITY)
∙ Type I hypersensitivity reactions
∙ Type II hypersensitivity reactions
∙ Type III hypersensitivity reactions
∙ Type IV hypersensitivity reactions
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
∙ Effector mechanisms of autoimmunity
∙ Endocrine glands and autoimmunity
∙ Autoimmune systemic disease
∙ Rheumatic diseases
TRANSPLANT OF TISSUES AND ORGANS
∙ System A, B, O
∙ Acute rejection of transplants
∙ Allogeneic transplantation
INFLAMMATION REPAIR PROCESSES
∙ Vascular changes
∙ Diapedesis and Chemotaxis
∙ Phagocytosis and mechanisms of killing microorganisms
∙ Chemical mediators
∙ Systemic reactions
∙ Chronic inflammation
∙ Repair process
ALTERATIONS OF THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
∙ Amyloidosis
DAMAGE AND CELL DEATH
∙ Cellular responses to damage
∙ Intracellular accumulations: steatosis, glycogen storage disease
∙ Apoptosis
∙ Necrosis
CELL GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION
∙ Normal regulation and adaptations (hyperplasia and hypertrophy)
∙ Benign neoplastic growth
∙ Malignant neoplastic growth
∙ Molecular bases: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
∙ Physical, chemical, viral carcinogenesis
∙ Cancer cell biology
∙ Metastatic process
∙ Tumor immunology
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons. Slides made available to students on Ariel platform
Teaching Resources
Rubin PATOLOGIA GENERALE: L'ESSENZIALE Per i corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie
Pontieri PATOLOGIA GENERALE E FISIOPATOLOGIA GENERALE Per i corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie
Maier, Mariotti ELEMENTI DI PATOLOGIA GENERALE E FISIOPATOLOGIA
Cairo, Recalcati, Tacchini QUICK REVIEW: PATOLOGIA EdiSES
Lakhani LE BASI DELLA PATOLOGIA GENERALE CEA
Gonzalez, Larrea, Rodiguez IMMUNOLOGIA
Sompayrac COME FUNZIONA IL SISTEMA IMMUNITARIO Scita, Disanza
Medical history
Course syllabus
ORIGINS AND MEANING OF MEDICINE AND THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE
∙ Systematic anatomy, animated anatomy, microscopic anatomy and pathological anatomy
Enlightenment and public health
∙ The birth of the clinic and its tools (semeiotics, diagnostics and therapy)
∙ Surgery problems and their resolution: analgesia, anaesthesia, asepsis and antisepsis
The 20th century: new concepts, tools and therapies
The Evolution of health and disease sites
SOURCES FOR THE HISTORY OF LABORATORY MEDICINE (BOOKS, ARTICLES, INSTRUMENTS)
∙ From uroscopy to urinalysis; Proteinuria: from the first observations to nineteenth-century scientific studies
∙ The birth of Physiological Chemistry
∙ The Laboratory as a complement to the bedside clinic
∙ The Immunology of blood cells: the main historical stages
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons. Slides made available to students on Ariel platform
Teaching Resources
Bock G., Quaderno di Storia della Medicina e della chirurgia. GAM Editrice, Rudiano (BS), 2004.
Soffiati G., Dall'Olio G., "Point of care testing": ritorno al passato, niente di nuovo sotto il sole, viaggio nel futuro? Riv. Med. Lab 2001; 2 (1): 21-23.
Diamantis A., Magiorkinis E., Androutsos G., Proteinuria from ancient observation to 19th century scientific study. The Journal of Urology 2008; 180: 2330-2332.
Porro A., Migliorati P., Falconi B., Franchini A.F., Il Laboratorio tardo-ottocentesco al servizio del medico pratico e della salute dell'uomo: qualche riflessione, Rivista di Storia della Medicina 2011; 1-2: 219-233.
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 40 hours
Medical history
MED/02 - MEDICAL HISTORY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor(s)