The course pourposes are to acquire knowledge of the groundwater flow, with reference to the quantitative assessment of water resources, detailing what has been learned in general during bachelor degree. The student must understand how to connect the geological features of the territory with the physical laws that describe the groundwater flows.
Expected learning outcomes
Applying knowledge and understanding During the course of the study problems are proposed and their resolution is set relative to the parametrization of the geological media and at the best ad sustainable use of water resources, also with use of the software. In the applications, the theoretical aspect must be linked to the different case studies proposed, with varying complexity and data availability. Making judgements As part of the proposed problem solving, the student has to move on to faster in time and more efficient applications, at a first stage, also with a common work between students who then have to entertain personal ideas and therefore single work. Communication skills The presentation of a project, the execution of exercises, the conversation between a student and a teacher during lessons will develop oral and practical skills in dealing with water resources issues. Learning skills At the end of the course the student is able to use a specific language and connect the various quantitative aspects discussed in the course with regard to groundwater resources, including processing complexity.
EXPOLORATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES The course propose the state-of-art of the groundwater flow knowledge, with special reference on the quantitative evaluation of the water resources. Hydrogeological study and investigation of the groundwater exploitation, with special reference to sustainable use, are illustrated in different geological settings. 1. Aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes, Subsoil reconstruction in hydrogeology 2. Groundwater flow. Groundwater hydrology laws 3. Flow net analysis: Piezometric maps. Flow net. Interaction between surface water and groundwater Hydrogeological boundaries. Groundwater discharge. 2. Pumping test. Drawdown and recovery test. Theis, Walton-Hantush, Boulton, Neuman. Method. Pumping test and hydrogeological boundaries. Superposition principle. 3. Geostatistic applied to hydrogeology: Steady and unsteady variables. Experimental and model of variogram. Kriging. Expected value and kriging standard deviation cartography. Network monitoring optimization. 4. Unsaturated flow. Distribution of water in the unsaturated media. Soil water potential. Soil moisture potential, volumetric water content and hydraulic conductivity curves. Preferential flow. Measure of the unsaturated media properties; tensiometer, infiltrometer. Water flow in the unsaturated media 5. Groundwater in rock masses: Hydraulic parameters: influence of stress status in rock masses. Aperture and hydraulic aperture. Fluid flow laws. Hydrogeological conceptual models (dual porosity, equivalent continuum, fractured discrete media). Flow in carbonate rocks. Karts. 6. Isotopes in hydrogeology. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Use of isotopes in groundwater hydrology. 7. Springs: Springs classification. Investigation the source catchment. Depletion curve analysis and water resources stored in the subsoil. Springs collection system. 8. Water well construction. Geological prospecting for the well drilling. Drilling methods (percussion, direct and reverse circulation, other type). Well completion (casing, cementation, insulation). Well screens and gravel pack.. Simple and cluster well. Well development (purging, surging, compressed air). Well test (discharge-drawdown curve and optimal discharge). Well efficiency). Design of well in porous media. 9. Flow models. Flow net analysis. Numerical solution of the groundwater flow law in the saturated media: finite difference finite and finite element methods. Groundwater flow model implementation and use: conceptual model, initial and boundary conditions, space-time discretization, model calibration and verification, sensitivity analysis, simulation and prevision. Flow model in the unsaturated media. 10. Dewatering. Control of groundwater levels. Methods of dewatering: well, wellpoint, drain, etc. 11. Geothermal heat pump. Thermal properties of the subsoil. Use of low enthalpy geothermal resources. Open and close systems. Impact on soil and groundwater of the geothermal heat pump. 12. Laws. Water laws of European Union and of Italy
Prerequisites for admission
The prerequisites is the knowledge of the hydrogeology topics covered in the bachelor course F65.
Writing and computerized exercices aided to the understand the theoretical concepts exposed in the course.
Anderson M., Woessner W.W. (1992) - "Applied Ground-Water Modeling". Academic Press, San Diego Beretta G.P. (1992) - "Idrogeologia per il disinquinamento delle acque sotterranee", Pitagora Editrice, Bologna Bear J. (1979) - "Hydraulics of groundwater". Mc Graw-Hil, New York Celico P.(1986) - "Prospezioni idrogeologiche". Vol. 1 e 2, Liguori Editore, Napoli Domenico P.A., Schwartz (1998) - Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology, J.Wiley & Sons Fetter C.W. (1992) - "Contaminant hydrogeology". MacMillan, New York Freeze R.A., Cherry J.A. (1979) - "Groundwater". Prentice -Hall, Inc. Engleewood Cliffs Todd D.K. (1980) - "Groundwater Hydrology" J.Wiley & Sons Dispense del Corso
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final evaluation consists in verifying the knowledge acquired and in discussion a personal work (well design).