Human anatomy and histology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/16 BIO/17
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student should
to know the methods and morphological survey tools
learn about the morphology of the cells and tissues of the human organism;
know the main mechanisms through which is realized the maturation of germ elements, fertilization and development of the human organism;
be able to observe, describe and identify the different organelles of the eukaryotic cell, the various tissues and their localization within the bodies; know: the organization of the human body, the shape and the seat of the organs of the various systems of the body and the main structural features that are the basis of organ functions
Expected learning outcomes
Acquire the knowledge of the morphology, microscopic and submicroscopic structure of cells and tissues, particularly with regard to those of the human organism; to know gametogenesis.
Describe the general architecture of the human body and the structure of the organs in relation to their functional role.
Know the basic use of the optical microscope for the observation of histological samples, prepared according to conventional methods.
Observe histological preparations, in order to discuss, describe and identify the morphological features of the various tissues and organs; demonstrate that the necessary knowledge for subsequent courses was acquired.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Lectures and other face-to-face teaching activities will be delivered in blended mode, partly in person and partly online, preferably in synchronous mode with only specific contributes in asynchronous mode. Specifically, the "in presence" lessons will be planned from Wednesday to Friday, while during the remaining days of the week will be planned online lessons. In line with the Covid safety protocol approved by our University, the "in presence" lessons will be possible by rotation with seat reservations made by using the available app easy lesson.

All lectures will be recorded and made available to the students on dedicated platform (e.g. Ariel, TEAMS, etc.).

In case of new suspension of "in presence" lessons, all the face-to-face teaching activities students will be switched to synchronous distance learning. Each hour of the lesson will include 45min of formal teaching followed by 15min of discussion / interaction / question time.

The lab sessions, scheduled in accordance with the reported program, will be organized by online lessons and useful material, such as video provided by the teacher, will be available on the dedicated institutional platforms.

Any notice regarding updates or changes of Covid-19 rules will be communicated by the Didactic Secretary
Prerequisites for admission
No knowledge are required
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment method includes a written test, a practical exam to recognize tissues and organs, and an oral exam; it is mandatory to pass the written test for the admission at the practical and oral exam.
The written test is a multiple choice test including 40 questions in 75 minutes; each question has 5 possible answers; in the practical exam students have to observe, descibe and recognize histological samples on micrographs: one micrograph to identify tissues (histology practical) and one micrograph to identify organs (microanatomy practical); the oral exam is a discussion on the topics included in the course program.
Assessment parameters: the knowledge of histology and anatomy, the ability to recognize and describe organs and tissues based on the specific microscopic characteristics, and the understanding of the organization of the human body as well as
the efficacious communication of the information and with the appropriate terms will be assessed.
Assessment: final mark (/30) based on the results of all tests;
Communication of results: the results of the written test will be published on the Ariel website.
Course syllabus
Main methods in histology: Tissue preparation (fixation, embedding, slicing,
staining). Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Light and electron microscopy.
Epithelial tissue: structure, ultra structure, and major functions. Classification of Epithelia (simple
and stratified) and examples. Relations with the underlying connective tissue. Morphological and
functional cell polarity. Apical, lateral and basal domain and its specializations. Epithelial cell
Glands: structure, ultrastructure.
Exocrine glands: classification criteria. Different mechanisms of secretion. Examples of exocrine
glands (based on different classification criteria).
Endocrine glands: classification criteria, mode of secretion and chemical nature of the secreted
hormone. Cytological and histological characters of the main endocrine glands: interstitial cells of
the testis and ovary, the islets of Langerhans, pituitary, adrenal cortex, corpus luteum,
parathyroid, thyroid.
Sensory epithelia: general characteristics and examples.
Connective tissue proper: structure and functions. Extracellular matrix: amorphous substance,
proteoglycans and glycoproteins; collagen, reticular and elastic fibers. Connective tissue cells:
fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells, adipose cells, mesenchymal stem cells.
Loose and dense connective tissue.
White and brown adipose tissue.
Cartilage: structure and functions. Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.
Bone tissue: compact and spongy architecture. General structure of bones. Microscopic
structure of bone lamellar and non-lamellar. Periosteum and endosteum. Bone matrix (the organic
and inorganic). Cells of bone tissue (osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts).
Bone formation: intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
Blood: structure and functions. Plasma. Erythrocytes and platelets. Granulocytes (neutrophils,
eosinophils and basophils) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). Hemopoiesis: an
Muscle tissue: structure and functions.
Skeletal muscle tissue, organization of striated muscle fiber, myofibrils and myofilaments.
Neuromuscular junction.
Cardiac muscle: organization of cardiac muscle fiber.
Smooth muscle.
Nerve tissue: structure and functions. The neuron: ultrastructure of the cell body, axon and
dendrites. Axonal transport. Different types of neurons.
Unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers. Myelin sheath and myelination process. Synapses.
Glial cells of the PNS, CNS and microglia.
General embryology: Oogenesis. Ovarian cycle. Uterine cycle. Spermatogenesis. Fertilization
and blastocyst implantation. Determination and totipotency of the blastomeres. Decidualization.
Formation of the three germ layers. Longitudinal and side folds. Derivatives of the three germ
Teaching methods
Teaching methods (all compulsory):
Tutorial activities at the light microscope for histology
Didactical material (PDF presentations) relative to the tutorial activities at the light microscope will be uploaded on the Ariel website.
Attendance required.
Teaching Resources
Junqueira - Istologia - Testo Atlante (Junqueira Mescher) Ed. PICCIN
Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica (Wheater)- Masson
Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica (Dalle Donne, Gagliano, et al.)-Edises
Anatomia Microscopica (G. Familiari) - Piccin
Human anatomy
Course syllabus
General anatomy:
Anatomical position, the anatomical planes and the terms used to describe body movements.
General organization of the human body (body spaces).
General structure of the organs.
Integumentary system:
Skin: general features and structure.
Skin appendages: general features.
Breast gland.
Locomotor system:
Bones: structure and classification; osteogenesis; bones of the skull, trunk and limbs.
Joints: classification and structure; description of the main joints.
Muscles: general morphology and structure; tendons: morphology and structure; study of the
main muscles and muscular groups.
Walls of the head, throat, thorax, abdomen, and relative body spaces.
Limbs: general structure.
Cardiovascular system:
Heart and blood vessels:
General structure.
Heart: morphology, position, structure.
Blood vessel structure.
Systemic and pulmonary circuits.
Major arteries and veins.
General organization of the arteries and veins in the head and neck, in the trunk, in the limbs, and
in organs.
Lymphatic system:
Lymphatic vessels.
Lympoid organs (thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils): localization and structure.
Haematopioietic and haemocateretic organs.
Digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, endocrine systems: general morphology,
localization, main anatomical relations, structure and morphofunctional aspects of the organs of
the different systems.
Ultrastructure of lung alveoli, nephron (renal corpuscle and air-blood barrier), liver (hepatocyte,
biliary capillary, Disse's space), lining epithelium of the small intestine (enterocytes and microvilli).
Nervous system:
General aspects of the evolution of the neural circuits and their organization.
Central nervous system:
Major divisions, external morphological features and internal organization of the grey matter and
white matter.
General organization of the central nervous system: main ascending and descending pathways,
nuclei and cortical areas, cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Reticular formation, limbic system, hypotalamus and control of visceral activities: general
Peripheral nervous system: general principles of the somatic and visceral innervation.
Eye: general organization and structure.
Ear: general organization and structure.
Practice at the microscope: analysis and description at the light microscope of sections obtained
from tissues and organs of the different systems.
Teaching methods
Teaching methods (all compulsory):
Tutorial activities at the light microscope for microanatomy
Tutorial activities with models of human organs

Didactical material (PDF presentations) relative to the tutorial activities at the light microscope will be uploaded on the Ariel website.
Attendance required.
Teaching Resources
Anatomia dell'uomo (Ambrosi et al.)-EdiERMES
Anatomia Umana (Martini et al.)-Edises
Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica (Wheater)- Masson
Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica (Dalle Donne, Gagliano, et al.)-Edises
Anatomia Microscopica (G. Familiari) - Piccin
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 3
Informal teaching: 8 hours
Lessons: 20 hours
Human anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Informal teaching: 8 hours
Lessons: 28 hours
Appointment via e-mail
Dept. of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31, Milan