Introduction to Geology and Laboratory

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
GEO/01 GEO/02 GEO/03 GEO/07
Learning objectives
Knowledge and understanding Basic knowledge of Earth Sciences and the main processes operating on the surface and within the Earth. Ability to understand the elementary processes that will be deepened and implemented during the following years
Applying knowledge and understanding: Ability to translate the skills acquired in the reading and use of topographic and geological maps, and in the basic description of rocks.
Expected learning outcomes
Making judgements: Distinction between acquiring data in Earth Sciences and models-interpretations-theories; Evaluation of macroscopic characters of rocks; Understanding of topographic and simple geological maps.
Communication skills: Ability to describe and explain in writing the knowledge gained during the course both in terms of theory and exercises and in the field.
Learning skills: Ability to advancing knowledge in basic geological studies Ability to advance knowledge and processes in the context of subsequent fundamental geological studies.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
MODULE I: The lessons will be held online via the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both synchronously (on the basis of the first semester schedule) and asynchronously because they will be recorded and left available to students on the same platform.

MODULE II: TheLaboraty will be held partly in presence (in a classroom suitably equipped for the Covid emergency) and partly online via a virtual laboratory using a specially developed application.

MODULE III: field activities will be organized taking into account the number of Students and in compliance with the rules related to the Covid emergency. The timely program will be promptly communicated via the ARIEL platform.

Program and reference material: The program and the reference material of the three modules will not change. All educational support material will always be made available through the Ariel platform

Learning assessment procedures and assessment criteria:
If the situation allows it, the exams will take place in written and in presence form according to the procedures described in the section "Exam procedures". Alternatively, the exams will take place orally using the Teams platform.
Course syllabus
Building a Planet. The origin of our system of planets. Early Earth and the formation of a layered planet. Earth as a system of interacting components. Earth through geologic time.
The Earth System. Componente. Feedbacks. Equilibrium states. Perturbations and forcings. A quantitative approach.
Earth atmosphere and climate. Structure and composition of the atmosphere. Energy distribution and balance. Atmospheric circulation. Climatic zones. Climate natural variability. Introduction to paleoclimatology
Oceanography. Chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the oceans., Oceanic circulation.
Exploring Earth's interior. Exploring the interior with seismic waves. Layering and composition of Earth's interior. Earth's internal heat and temperature. The three-dimentional structure of the mantle. Earth's magnetic field.
Plate tectonics. The discovery of plate tectonics. The mosaic of plates. Rates and history of plate motion. The grand reconstruction. Mantle convection: the engine of plate tectonics.
Rocks: records of geological processes. Principal genetic processes. Igneous rocks. Metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks. The rock cycle.
Geological time scale. Chronology of the Earth system. Relative chronology. Radiometric dating. Absolute chronology. Geochronologic time scales (GPTS and ATS)
Folds, faults and other records of rock deformation. How rocks become deformed. How rocks fracture: joints and faults. How rocks fold.
Earth beneath the oceans. Basic differences in the geology of oceans and continents. Introduction to marine geology.

Topographic map reading: contour elevation lines; infrastructures; valley and ridge lines; drainage basin; slope dip; topographic profiles; interpolation of contour lines from elevation points.
Geologic boundary: dip azimuth and dip; construction of a plane boundary from dip azimuth and dip; determination of dip azimuth and dip from the trace of a plane boundary.
Geologic cross sections on simplified maps: plane and parallel surfaces; unconformities; symmetric and asymmetric folds; faults.

The purpose of the fieldwork is to read the geological landscape, coupling the evidence of the surface forms with the characteristics of the rocky substrate. The activities during fieldwork intend to stimulate the observation of nature, in a continuous passage of scale, from submillimetric to multi-kilometer, imagining its evolution over time and figuring out a process of characterization and study.
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites for the three modules.
To take the compulsory excursion test, the student must have attended the activity.
Teaching methods
The course consists of 3 teaching modules:
Module I (theory) - 4 credits of FRONTAL LESSONS = 32 hours

Module II (cartography laboratory) - 2 cfu classroom and online EXERCISES = 24 hours: exercises on topographic and geological maps

Module III (excursions) - 1 cfu - field activity = 2 days
Geomorphological and geological observations; reading and exercises of topographic and geological maps; drawings and exercises using the field notebook
Teaching Resources
* PPTs of all the lessons available on the ARIEL platform
* Registered online lessons
* textbook:
THIRD ITALIAN EDITION CONDUCTED ON THE SEVENTH AMERICAN Edited by Elvidio Lupia Palmieri, Maurizio Parotto, Publisher: ZANICHELLI: 06/2016 Number of pages: 650, ISBN: 9788808821232
(Please note: the original American version can be consulted upon request to the teacher)

* Text: L. Aruta & P. ​​Marescalchi, Cartography, D. Flaccovio Editore
* Text: B. Simpson, Reading geological maps, D. Flaccovio Editore
* Didactic material distributed by the teacher

Specific material prepared by the teachers, including topographic maps, geological maps and diagrams to be used during the excursions
Assessment methods and Criteria
Exam methods: Written.
The exam includes 2 distinct tests related respectively to the THEORY and the LABORATORY OF CARTOGRAPHY. Each test includes an evaluation (in 30simi): each of the two exam tests is considered passed if an evaluation of at least 18/30 is obtained.
The validity of the partial evaluation of each test is 1 year.

The overall exam is passed when an assessment of at least 18/30 has been obtained for both tests (theory and practice). In addition, mandatory excursions must have been made and are evaluated on the basis of the specific campaign and test notebook.

The final evaluation corresponds to the average of the single evaluations (theory, laboratory, excursions)
GEO/01 - PALEONTOLOGY AND PALEOECOLOGY - University credits: 0
GEO/03 - STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY - University credits: 0
GEO/07 - PETROLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY - University credits: 0
Field activity: 12 hours
Practicals: 24 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Erba Elisabetta
Attività Alternativa
Professors: Erba Elisabetta, Poli Stefano
Didattica Obbligatoria di terreno
Professors: Erba Elisabetta, Poli Stefano, Zanoni Davide
Turno I
Professor: Zanoni Davide
Turno II
Professor: Zanoni Davide
Monday, 12.30 - 13.30
Via Botticelli 23, Milano
Ask for an appointment via email
Via Mangiagalli 34, 3° floor