Life Sciences

A.Y. 2021/2022
5
Max ECTS
55
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/13 BIO/17 MED/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to lead students to:
1. Know the basics of molecular and cellular biology
2. Know, describe and identify the microscopic structures of cells and tissues
3. Know the mechanisms of genetic transmission of diseases.
Expected learning outcomes
The student should know the life science, the cell biology and should be able to understand the structure and the function for each component of cell compartment. These characteristics will be preparatory for the learning of Molecular biology
The student should Know the structural bases of tissues and their morpho-functional correlations
The student should know the genetic basis of inheritance and the mutational mechanisms underlying human genetic diseases. These characteristics will be preparatory for the learning of genetic pathologies.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
- The program of the course will not be modified
- Teaching resources will not be modified
- Teaching method: on-line teaching on Microsoft Teams platform, recorded lessons uploaded to the Ariel platform
- Assessment method: oral exam on Microsoft Teams platform, written exam on Microsoft Forms-SEB-videoconference platform
Prerequisites for admission
Genetic and Histology: none.
Biology: basic knowledge of Biology acquired in secondary school.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will include a written (multiple choice test and open questions) and an oral test including the recognize of the normal microscopic features of tissues using light microscopic images.
The exam is considered passed if the student has acquired a minimum score of 18/30 in each test. The final exam grade is the weighted average of the marks obtained in the individual tests.
Experimental biology
Course syllabus
FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING MATTER
. Complexity
∙ Growth capacity
∙ Self-reproduction ability
∙ Adaptation to the environment

CELL ORGANIZATION
∙ Cellular theory
∙ Fundamental properties of cell
. Prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell
∙ Monocellular and multicellular organisms
∙ Evolutionary processes
. Compartmentation of eukaryotic cells
∙ Cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments: structure and functions

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LIVING MATTER
∙ Inorganic and organic compounds
∙ Biological macromolecules
∙ The biological importance of water
∙ Structure and function of nucleic acids
∙ The flow of information between biological macromolecules

THE BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES
∙ Structure and function of biological membranes


THE CELL MEMBRANE SYSTEM
∙ Endoplasmic reticulum
∙ Golgi apparatus
. Nuclear envelope
∙ Lysosomes
∙ Peroxisomes
∙ Structure and function

INFORMATION FLOW IN LIVING MATTER
. DNA as hereditary material
. Demonstration that DNA is the hereditary material: Hershey and Chase experiment
∙ Central dogma of biology
. DNA replication: Meselson and Stahl experiment
. Generalities on the structure of the eukaryotic gene

TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION
∙ Notes on the mechanisms of transcription and maturation of mRNAs
∙ Structure of the ribosome
∙ Structure of the tRNA
. The genetic code
. Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes
Teaching methods
The course is divided into 25 lectures with Power Point slides
Teaching Resources
-Miozzo, Sirchia, Prinetti, Gervasini LE BASI BIOLOGICHE DELLA VITA Elsevier
-Chieffi, Dolfini, Malcovati, Pierantoni, Tenchini BIOLOGIA & GENETICA Terza Edizione EdiSES
-Talesa, Giovannini, Antognelli ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA E GENETICA McGraw Hill
-Purves, Sadava, Orians, Heller ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA E GENETICA Zanichelli
Calligaro A. et al. CITOLOGIA E ISTOLOGIA FUNZIONALE: Edi. Ermes
Adamo S. et al. ELEMENTI DI ISTOLOGIA E CENNI DI EMBRIOLOGIA: Piccin
Histology
Course syllabus
EPITHELIAL TISSUE:
· main characteristics of epithelial tissue
· classification of epithelial tissue
EPITHELIAL GLANDS
· main characteristics of epithelial glands
· classification
· type of secretion
· mechanism of secretion
CONNECTIVE TISSUE:
· general structure and function of connective tissue
· connective tissue proper
· connective tissue fibers
· extracellular matrix
· connective tissue cells
CARTILAGE:
· main characteristics of cartilage
· growth of cartilage
· types of cartilage
BONE:
· classification of bone
· bone matrix
· cellular components of bone

BLOOD:
· plasma
· cellular elements
· ABO blood group system
MUSCLE TISSUE:
· SKELETAL MUSCLE
· characteristics of the skeletal muscle cell or fiber
· myofibril
· components of the thin and thick filaments of the sarcomere
· mechanism of muscle contraction
· CARDIAC MUSCLE
· characteristics of the cardiocytes
· SMOOT MUSCLE
· characteristics of smooth muscle
NERVOUS TISSUE:
· cell types: neurons and glia
· neuron
· types of neurons
· oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells: myelinization
· structure of a peripheral nerve
· structure of a sensory ganglia
Teaching methods
The course is divided into 25 lectures with Power Point slides. For Histology, observation of histological tissues under the light microscope
Teaching Resources
-Miozzo, Sirchia, Prinetti, Gervasini LE BASI BIOLOGICHE DELLA VITA Elsevier
-Chieffi, Dolfini, Malcovati, Pierantoni, Tenchini BIOLOGIA & GENETICA Terza Edizione EdiSES
-Talesa, Giovannini, Antognelli ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA E GENETICA McGraw Hill
-Purves, Sadava, Orians, Heller ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA E GENETICA Zanichelli
Calligaro A. et al. CITOLOGIA E ISTOLOGIA FUNZIONALE: Edi. Ermes
Adamo S. et al. ELEMENTI DI ISTOLOGIA E CENNI DI EMBRIOLOGIA: Piccin
Medical genetics
Course syllabus
MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Chromosomes; somatic and germinal cells; chromosome and ploidy structure; mitosis and meiosis; male and female gametogenesis
MENDELIAN GENETICS. Mendel's laws; genotype and phenotype; gene, allele, locus; multiple allelism. Incomplete dominance and codominace (blood groups). Associated genes.
INHERITANCE IN HUMANS. Simple and complex diseases. Representation of family trees; model of inheritance (examples of mendelian genetic diseases).
MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY. Spontaneous and induced mutations (mutagens); germline and somatic mutations; mosaicism; molecular bases: phenotypic effects (missense, nonsense, frameshift and splicing mutations).
HUMAN KARYOTYPE. Morphology and classification of human chromosomes; prenatal and postnatal chromosomal analysis;
CHROMOSOMAL ANOMALIES. Main chromosomal anomalies. Number chromosomal anomalies: polyploidies and aneuploidies of autosomes and heterosomes in humans. X-inactivation and PAR regions. Structure balanced chromosomal anomalies: inversion, translocation (including robertsonian translocation) and imbalanced: deletion, duplication.
Teaching methods
The course is divided into 25 lectures with Power Point slides.
Teaching Resources
-Miozzo, Sirchia, Prinetti, Gervasini LE BASI BIOLOGICHE DELLA VITA Elsevier
-Chieffi, Dolfini, Malcovati, Pierantoni, Tenchini BIOLOGIA & GENETICA Terza Edizione EdiSES
-Talesa, Giovannini, Antognelli ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA E GENETICA McGraw Hill
-Purves, Sadava, Orians, Heller ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA E GENETICA Zanichelli
Calligaro A. et al. CITOLOGIA E ISTOLOGIA FUNZIONALE: Edi. Ermes
Adamo S. et al. ELEMENTI DI ISTOLOGIA E CENNI DI EMBRIOLOGIA: Piccin
Experimental biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Doneda Luigia
Histology
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 2
Practicals: 15 hours
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Barni Luisa
Medical genetics
MED/03 - MEDICAL GENETICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours