A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Autonomia di giudizio: L'insegnamento fornisce la capacità di identificare e classificare i minerali e i processi di crescita e trasformazione minerale. Vengono forniti gli elementi di cristallochimica necessari per valutare in modo critico la stabilità delle frequentissime soluzioni solide nei minerali formatori di rocce e dei processi di polimorfismo. Entrambe informazioni sono fondamentali nella interpretazione dei processi petrogenetici e geodinamici.
Abilità comunicative: L'insegnamento prevede l'acquisizione della conoscenza dei criteri internazionali di classificazione dei minerali illustrando la terminologia opportuna, comprensiva di simboleggiatura, ed i termini in lingua inglese, permettendo di comunicare in modo universale i problemi e i fenomeni legati a alla mineralogia e cristallochimica.
Capacità di apprendere: lo studente deve acquisire una conoscenza di base della mineralogia ed essere in grado di estendere le basi acquisite per completare le informazione richieste in altri ambiti concreti delle Scienze della Terra.
Expected learning outcomes
Making judgements The course provides the ability to identify and classify minerals and processes of mineral growth and transformation. Crystal-chemical elements are provided in order to critically evaluate the stability of the most common solid solutions in rock forming minerals and polymorphism processes. Both kind of information are fundamental in the interpretation of petrogenetic and geodynamic processes.
Communication skills The course target includes the acquisition of knowledge of international mineral classification criteria by illustrating appropriate jagon, including symbolism, and English lexicon, enabling universal communication of problems and phenomena related to mineralogy and crystal chemistry.
Learning skills Students must acquire a basic understanding of mineralogy and be able to extend the acquired background to complete the information eventually required in other concrete areas of Earth Sciences.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
During the emergency teaching phase, the program is maintained with the following changes necessary for a good online use of the course originally designed for face-to-face teaching.

Teaching methods:
Lectures will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both in sync on the basis of the timetable and asynchronously because they will be recorded and left available to students on the same platform; with the exception of some exercises in the classroom equipped for microscopy (3 of 3 hours each, at the end of the course) which will be delivered in groups in alphabetical order. The latter they will be also recorded and left available on the same platform to students that could not attend.

Program and reference material:
The program and the reference material will not change.
The teaching supporting materials are powerpoint presentations accessible on the ARIEL website (http://fcamaram.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v3/home/Default.aspx). Recorded lessons are also accessible from the same platform.

Verification of learning and evaluation criteria:
In case that it is not possible to do written tests, all tests will be oral through the Microsoft Teams platform.
Course syllabus
A. Introduction
Summaries of concepts from the 1st year course "Laboratory of Minerals and Rocks": definition of mineral, chemical composition of the Earth crust and planets, ionic radii and coordination polyhedra. Chemical formula. Crystalline matter. Relationship with physical properties. Mineral stability: phase rule. Some important minerals.
B. Symmetry
Periodicity. Lattice. Some historical notes. Fundamental crystallography laws. Haüy's law. Miller Indices. Crystalline systems. Two-dimensional lattices. Three-dimensional lattices. Bravais Patterns.
C. Crystal chemistry
Atom packing. Pauling's Rules. Isomorphism. Exsolution/ unmixing. Polymorphism. Polymorphic transformations. Polytypism. Paramorphism. Metamictization. Pseudomorphism. Polysomatism.
D. Systematic mineralogy
Mineral classification. Concept of species and mineral group. IMA. Mineral and mineral structures databases. Classification rules. Mineral Hierarchies. Overview, composition, structure and physical characteristics of the most common minerals of the following classes: Silicates (nesosilicates, sorosilicates, cyclosilicates, inosilicates, fillosilicates, tectosilicates); native elements; oxides and hydroxides; sulphides and sulphosalts; carbonates; borates; sulphates; phosphates; organic compounds. Short overview of mineral genesis processes.
Exercises. Mineral characterization techniques
E.1. Symmetry. Symmetry operations. Stereographic projection. Symmetry classes and stereographic representation of symmetry operators and classes. Crystal shapes. Types of crystalline forms. Twinning. Types of twinning.
E.2. Diffraction. Reciprocal lattice. Generation of X-rays. The Bragg equation. The Ewald Sphere. Powder diffraction. Manually interpreting a diffractogram.
E.3. X-ray fluorescence. Mineral formulas.
E.4. Optical mineralogy. Nature of light. Absorption. Reflection and refraction. Snell's Law. Birefringence. Fresnel's formula. Optical Indicatrices and Crystal Systems. Description of polarized-light microscope. Mineral observations: parallel light (relief, Becke line, retardation and interference colors) and conoscopy (interference figures).
Prerequisites for admission
The Mineralogy course requires knowledge of the topics covered in the courses of Mathematics I (in particular trigonometry and geometry), Chemistry (periodic table and ionization of the elements, chemical formulation) and laboratory and Physics II (Electromagnetic waves and optics).
Teaching methods
Lectures and exercises (morphological crystallography, X-ray diffraction and mineralogical optics with the use of the polarized light microscope)
Teaching Resources
The supports for the ppt slides used during the lessons can be downloaded from the ARIEL website.
The following texts are of support:
Klein, K. Mineralogia. Zanichelli

[Web site] (ARIEL website):
Assessment methods and Criteria
Examinations to verify knowledge consists of a compulsory written test and an optional oral test (discussion):
The written test aims to ascertain the knowledge acquired during the theoretical lessons and laboratory exercises through (a) solving exercises, with contents and difficulty degree similar to those faced in the exercises, (b) answering questions YES/NO (c) description of concepts.
The oral discussion focuses on all the topics covered in the course.
The oral exam is accessed only with a score of 24/30 in written test. Passing the written test is valid for subsequent appeals within the academic year.
GEO/06 - MINERALOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 24 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Turno I
Professor: Camara Artigas Fernando
Turno II
Professor: Camara Artigas Fernando
Turno Unico
Professor: Camara Artigas Fernando
Educational website(s)