The course provides knowledge on the importance of nutritional status for maintaining an organism healthy and able to meet the energy demands of physical activity. Nutritional regimens for adequate nutrient supply based on the classification of sports and the risks and benefits of supplementation will be examined. The principles underpinning the methods for assessing nutritional status and needs of the population and the individual will be analyzed.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire the necessary skills to assess: 1) adequate energy supply, correct distribution and timing of nutrient intake according to nutritional regimens for athletes during training, competition, and recovery; 2) appropriate use of dietary supplements and their mechanisms of action. Students will acquire knowledge about guidelines for a healthy, correct diet, different types of diets, and adjustments for athletes with special dietary needs (celiac disease, vegan).
Food Science in Sport and Physical Exercise. Homeostasis and adaptation.
Energy and macronutrients: . Carbohydrates: Structure, digestion and intestinal absorption; Fibers and health, Gut microbiota: function and modulation by diet and exercise. Carbohydrate homeostasis: GLUTs and SGLTs transporters Hormone function: insulin and glucagon Glycemic load and glycemic index. Metabolic differences between fructose and glucose. .Lipids Structure, digestion and intestinal absorption. Fat adaptation in well-trained athletes Intramuscular triglyceride metabolism in exercising muscle Metabolic adaptation: nutritional strategies to promoting fat utilization and delaying the onset of fatigue. .Proteine. Structure, digestion and intestinal absorption; Proteins nutritional value; Protein turnover. Protein and high quality Weight Loss in Elite Athletes. Protein recommendations: serving-by-serving basis or daily basis?
. Sports nutrition The importance of protein for athletes. Carbohydrate requirements and their influence on glycemia. Effect of fibres on fatigue: resistant starches Lipid metabolism and intensity of physical activity. Feeding before the race: the week before Feeding before the race: 3-4 hours earlier Feeding during the race Feeding after the race
.Hydration Balance of water supply Preventing dehydration in sport: osmolarity, absorption rate and gastric emptying. Hydration schemes for sports practice. Sport drinks and abuse damage.
Introduction to Dietary Reference Values for Italians LARN 2014 Rationale and definition of the dietary reference values Scientific approach for identifying the reference values AR, PRI and AI Extrapolation of reference values in relation to gender and different ages Food portion and examples Examples of practical application of the Italian DRVs
Food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) for healthy and balanced nutrition EFSA's indications for the definition of the national FBDG The epidemiological data underlying the definition of the Italian FBDG The evolution of the iconography of the guidelines (from the pyramid to the eat well guide) A new perspective: the environmental impact of food consumption
The Mediterranean diet The 9 Mediterranean rules From the Seven Countries Study to nowadays: analysis of changes in food consumption Indices of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and their use in nutrition research Mediterranean diet and health
Vegetarian diet / Vegan diet Description of the different vegetarian diets Pro and cons of vegetable-based diets for human health The vegetarian diet in sportsmen
· Metabolic adaptation to endurance · Strategies in sport nutrition to support concurrent training (strength + endurance) · Diet-exercise strategies to manipulate sul availability for training and competition preparation in endurance sport · Nutritional strategies in team sports
Prerequisites for admission
Previous knowledge of elements of human anatomy, physiology, metabolism and endocrinology.
Frontal lectures with slides projection. Attendance is compulsory.
Reference material is presented during frontal lectures (slides and scientific articles). Lecture slides will be uploaded to the Ariel portal. Recommended reference texts: - Livelli di Assunzione di riferimento di nutrienti ed energia per la popolazione italiana LARN - IV revision 2014; Editor SICS; Author: Società Italiana di Nutrizione Umana. - Linee guida per una sana alimentazione - revision 2018; Author: CREA Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria - Centro di ricerca alimenti e nutrizione. Available at: https://www.crea.gov.it/web/alimenti-e-nutrizione/-/linee-guida-per-una…
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written exam with 30 multiple choice questions (0,7 points for each correct answer) and 2 open questions covering the course content (max. 4.5 points for each satisfactory answer); 90 minutes duration. To pass the exam, the total grade must be at least 18/30.