Nutritional physiology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The aim of this course is the study of the functions of body systems, with particular attention to the gastrointestinal tract. Goal of the course is also to make the student aware of the functional relationship between various organ systems of the body as well as to explain the concept of internal environment and its regulation by homeostatic mechanisms. Understanding normal function and mechanisms of the human body will allow the student to understand, in future courses with a more clinical focus, the pathology and malfunctions of the human organs.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student should understand the function of human physiological systems and should also understand how these separate systems interact to yield integrated physiological responses to challenges as fasting or exercise. This knowledge will be the base to understand topics explained in future courses focusses on pathology and pharmacology and clinical medicine.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
1) Cell Physiology
· transports
· diffusion - osmotic pressure
· resting membrane potential- equilibrium potentials
· graduated potentials
2) Action Potential
· Genesys of the action potential
· Absolute and relative refractory period
· Action potential conduction-myelin sheath
3) Synapse
· chemical and electric synapse
· mechanisms of synaptic release
· synaptic modulation
4) neurochemistry
· neurotransmitter systems
· receptors aganists and anthagonists

5) Central nervous system general organization
· somatosensorial system
· somatosensorial receptors
· sensorial pathways
7) Nociception and pain: nociception pathways, pain modulation
8) Autonomic nervous system
9) Skeletal muscles
· molecolar description-actin and myosin crossbridge cycling
· sliding filament- role of calcium iones
· motor pathways
· neuromuscolar fuses
· spinal reflexes
10) Respiratory apparatus
· respiratory mechanics
· Gas exchange and transport
· Hemoglobin
· Respiratory regulation
11) Cardiovascular system
· cardiac cycle
· electrophysiology of cardiac cells
· regulation of heart pumping
· arterial pressure regulation
12) renal system
· glomerular filtration
· tubular reabsorption and transports
12) digestive apparatus- anatomical description
· chewing, salivation, swallowing
· gastric functions, secretions, actions
· control of gastric functions
· nutrients digestion absorption and transports
· hints of liver and pancreas functionality
13) methabolism
· basal methabolism
· anabolism and catabolism
· body temperature control
· fever
14) endocrinology
· hypothalamus and hypophysis
· growth hormone
· thyroid hormones
· adrenal glands: stress
15) hints of higher functions in CNS
Prerequisites for admission
For this course will be necessary a good knowledge of Human Anatomy and a basic knoledge of Biochemistry and Cell Biology.
Teaching methods
This course is based on lectures. During the lectures many slides will be shown and explained and discussed.
Teaching Resources
1) Sherwood: Fondamenti di Fisiologia Umana- Piccin
2) Stanfield: Fisiologia - EDISES
3) Berne&Levy: Fisiologia - CEA
4) Silverthorn: Fisiologia Umana - Pearson
Assessment methods and Criteria
There are not ongoing tests during the course. There will be just a final exam, and this will be only oral, a discussion of about 15-30 min focussed primarely on the explanation of mechanisms of function of the human organs and organ systems. Will be also evaluated

the knowledge of technical (medical) termes and the proper utilization in the discussions of those terms. There will be 6 possibilities to try the exam during the academic year, 2 in February, 2 in June-July and 2 in sept-oct.
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 60 hours
Professor: Manfridi Alfredo