A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The main objectives of the course are to provide the principles of magmatism and metamorphism, and to provide the basis for the recognition and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks using textural and mineralogical parameters at the macroscopic scale on hand samples.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student should know the principles of petrogenesis of igneous and metamorphic rocks and recognize hand samples of the main lithologies.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
In case of extension of the health emergency phase, the lectures will be held remotely using the MS Teams platform, and can be followed synchronously based on the timetable of the courses for the second semester AY 2020/2021. Particular attention will be paid to organizing shifts composed of a few students to carry out the practical activities dedicated to the observation of rocks. Updates will be available on the Ariel website. Individual contacts with teachers can be held via email and possibly remotely via skype platforms or MS teams.
Course syllabus
Petrogenesis: Composition and physical properties of the solid Earth. Pressure and temperature distribution within the Earth. General outline of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Igneous petrology. Classification of igneous rocks. Chemical and physical characters of the magma: density, temperature, viscosity and volatile content. Effusive and intrusive igneous bodies. Introduction to thermodynamics. Binary and ternary phase diagrams. Equilibrium versus fractional crystallization and melting in silicatic systems. Geochemistry of major, trace elements and isotopes. Origin and evolution of magma. Magmatic series and geodynamic environment.
Metamorphic petrology. Metamorphic processes; temperature, pressure, deformation; the role of fluids. The protoliths of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic grade and metamorphic facies. Types of metamorphism and geodynamic environment. Metamorphic transformations: metamorphic reactions and textural transformations. Classification of metamorphic rocks.

Identification of major igneous and metamorphic rocks at the macroscale (hand samples)
Prerequisites for admission
Principles of inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of rock forming minerals are mandatory requirements. In order to take the Petrography exam, it is mandatory to have taken the Mineralogy exam (Manifesto degli Studi, compulsory preparatory courses).
Teaching methods
Lectures and practicals.
Teaching Resources
The lecture slides are available on the Ariel website.
Suggested textbook:
C. Klein and A. Philpotts Earth Materials: Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology" - second edition - Cambridge University Press
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will consist of:
- a written test with 30 multiple choice questions (first partial)
- a practical test of description and recognition of 2 rock samples (second partial)
- an oral test that can only be held if the two written tests are successfully passed (verbalization)
The 3 tests will be provided for each session. It is also possible to register for only one of the 3 tests. It is emphasized that to access the oral exam it will be necessary to have passed the other two tests. Each single written test will be valid for one year.
An in itinere test is foreseen for the written test with 30 multiple choice questions (first partial).The description and classification of the 2 lithotypes allow to evaluate the practical skills of observation and recognition of magmatic and metamorphic rocks and related textures, adopting correct and appropriate terminology. The theoretical questions let evaluate the acquisition of principles of petrology needed to study the petrogenesis of magmatic and metamorphic rocks.
GEO/07 - PETROLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY - University credits: 6
Practicals with elements of theory: 12 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Fumagalli Patrizia
turno 1
Professor: Borghini Giulio
turno 2
Professor: Borghini Giulio
turno 3
Professor: Borghini Giulio
turno 4
Professor: Borghini Giulio
Monday-Friday with appointment
Via Botticelli 23 - office first floor