Physiology of Integrated Systems

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide the student with an overall view of the integrated physiological systems involved in complex responses and maintenance of homeostasis. Attention will be devoted to emphasizing the evolutionary aspects and the plasticity of the involved systems.
Expected learning outcomes
By the end of the course the students will be able:
- to recognize the role played by the different systems in the body's integrated responses;
- to apply this knowledge to understand the disease onset mechanisms that may allow the identification of new therapeutic targets and the design of new biotechnological drugs.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
The lessons will be held in person but can be followed remotely, on the teams platform in synchronous mode, by students unable to attend.
Course syllabus
Sensation and Sensory processing.
Sensory systems and perception. Organization of sensory system: how peripheral sensory information is elaborated at integrated at the CNS. Insights: nociception.
Movement and its central control. The organization of the motor system: how a brain-programmed action is translated into motion. Processes that program and control the execution of actions, their interaction with motion perception. In-sights: mirror neurons.

Complex brain functions
Learning and Memory. The neural and functional organization of short and long term memory processes and their role in human cognition. Insights: Molecular and cellular bases. Neuronal plasticity. Brain aging.
Speech and language; origins of language; use of symbols in the animal world; language acquisition; the brain areas dedicated to language, the Broca area and the Wernicke area; aphasia; the lateralization of language; dyslexia; reading processes and considerations on the writing process.
The sleep. The functional and neural structure of sleep control; biochemistry and physiology of sleep.

Homeostatic behaviors
Cardiovascular physiology and function integration. Neural control of cardio-respiratory response to maintain the heart rate and blood pressure.
Regulation of body temperature. Body temperature balance: heat production, gain, loss and mechanisms of control.
Food Behavior. Energy homeostasis and food behavior. Notions on metabolism. Regulation of food intake. Nerve structures involved in the control of hunger and satiety. Interaction of central and peripheral energy metabolism control signals.

Laboratory exercises: (1ECTS): simulations of physiological processes using the Laboratory Simulation Software PhysioEX
Prerequisites for admission
The course requires basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons
In-depth journal club on topics covered during the course
Laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
Fisiologia, D'Angelo e Peres - Ed. Edi-Ermes
Neuroscienze, Purves et al. - Ed. Zanichelli
Principi di Neuroscienze, Kandel, -Schwarts, Jessell - Ed. C.E.A.
Articoli di approfondimento degli argomenti trattati a lezione
Assessment methods and Criteria
Exam will be oral and students should be able to identify the role of each organ in the integrated functions for maintaining homeostasis but are also expected to understand the synchrony of many systems interacting simultaneously.
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Single bench laboratory practical: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Castagna Michela
Professor: Castagna Michela
Turno 1
Professor: Castagna Michela
Turno 2
Professor: Castagna Michela
By appointment
Via Trentacoste 2, Milano