Physiology, Pathology and Pathological Anatomy

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/09 MED/04 MED/08
Learning objectives
- Acquisition of knowledge on the functioning of tissues, organs and systems under normal conditions with particular attention to the auditory phenomenon;
- Acquisition of the fundamental knowledge of molecular pathology processes, of the tissues of organs and systems, and of the main micro and macroscopic alterations of diseases;
- The student must know the determining causes and the most important pathogenetic mechanisms in diseases and the concept of aetiology-pathogenesis of human diseases;
- It must also acquire notions of clinical microbiology aimed at clarifying the concept of infectious disease as well as the most important specific diagnostic methods.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will acquire knowledge and understanding of the physiological and pathological processes related to prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of human diseases.
Knowledge and classification of pathologies, pathogenetic processes, morphological pictures and relationship between organic lesions, symptoms and clinical signs.
The student must be able to perform appropriate clinical-pathological correlations.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
Notions of Human Anatomy, Physics, Chemistry and Biochemistry
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be exclusively written, and will consist of 30 multiple choice questions. The questions will focus on all the topics covered in class and are intended to determine the student's understanding of the given topic. To pass the exam it will be necessary to answer exactly at least 16 questions; the final grade will therefore be calculated by adding 2 to the number of correct answers.
Course syllabus
∙ Define and explain the concept of homeostasis.
∙ Know the general characteristics of cell membranes and explain the permeability and ion flux, steady state, active and passive transport, osmosis. Know the excitable tissues. Define the ionic bases of the membrane potential in resting cells, compare this potential with the equilibrium potential for a single ionic species (Nernst equation). Explain the role of the Na + -K + pump. To illustrate the relationships between variations of membrane potentials, ionic flows, membrane permeability. Depolarization and hyperpolarization. Explain the methods and mechanisms of propagation of a local variation of potential. Describe the time course of the action potential and correlate its main phases with the changes in membrane permeability. Explain the meaning of the threshold for the action potential, illustrate the methods of propagation of these potentials, the differences in the propagation in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Knowing how to classify nerve fibers. Know and describe the transmission of the electrical signal through the synapses: electrical and chemical synapses and their anatomical and functional differences. Describe and distinguish the anatomofunctional characteristics of the central and peripheral synapses (neuromuscular synapses) and the excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Know and define neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.
∙ Know and describe the functional organization of the muscle and the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle. Illustrate the characteristics of isometric and isotonic contraction. Illustrate the relationships between developed force and initial muscle length, between strength and shortening speed. Explain the mechanisms that lead to an increase in strength developed with increasing muscle stimulation frequency. Give the definition of fusion frequency of muscle tetanus. Single contraction and clone. Illustrate the functional characteristics of the smooth muscles and the heart muscle, and the distinction with the skeletal muscle.
∙ Know the organization of the elements of the motor system, the innervation of muscles and the control of movement and posture by the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Define the importance of the different levels of control of motor neuronal activity. Know the main types of spinal reflexes. Know the function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Know the CNS integrative functions. Know the difference between sensation and perception of sensory information. Knowing the classification of sensory receptors and the organization of the domestication system. Define the concept of transduction and explain the relationships between stimulus intensity, receptor potential and discharge frequency in the afferent fibers. Illustrate adaptation mechanisms in receptors and functional implications. Explain the concepts of convergence and divergence, receptive field, sensory modalities and recruitment. Explain the perception of pain and the function of endogenous opioids.
∙ Know the anatomical-functional characteristics of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System and their pre and postganglionic mediators.
∙ Know the electrical, mechanical and metabolic properties of the myocardium. Explain the law of all or nothing; Frank-Starling's law; Laplace's law. Describe cardiac excitable tissues. Explain the functions of the conduction system of the heart: excitability, automatism, rhythmicity. Define and know the heart rate regulation. Know and illustrate the wave morphology of a normal ECG. Illustrate the cardiac cycle. Define and quantify the systolic range, cardiac output and blood pressure and illustrate their reflex and humoral regulation. Know the function of the veins, venous compliance and explain the venous return. Illustrate Poiseuille's law.
∙ Know the functions of the alimentary canal (supply of nutrients and eliminate waste products) and the physiological processes responsible for these functions: motility, secretion, digestion, absorption, excretion. Describe the motor activity of the esophagus; the motor functions of the stomach (relaxation from filling, mixing, propulsion, motor activity of the pylorus); the motor functions of the small intestine (segmentation and propulsion); the motor functions of the large intestine (mixing, propulsion, defecation); motor activities of the gallbladder and biliary tract. Know the functions of external secretions: salivary, gastric, intestinal, pancreatic and biliary. Illustrate the methods and locations related to the processes of absorption of nutrients through the intestinal epithelium.
∙ Know the physiology of body fluids: volumes, compositions, intracellular and extracellular water, osmotic interactions. Describe the functions of the kidney. Explain glomerular filtration. The forces involved in glomerular ultrafiltration. Illustrate the active resorption mechanisms characterized by maximum tubular load (Tm) and passive. Describe tubular secretion. Define and describe kidney clearances. Demonstrate general knowledge of urine concentration and dilution mechanisms. Know the role of the kidneys in the acid-base balance. Describe the correlation of the reabsorption of Na and water. The functions of the bladder and reflex of urination and regulatory centers.
∙ Know the functions of the blood: transport, immunity, hemostasis and homeostasis. Know the composition and volume of plasma and blood. The viscosity of plasma and blood. Describe hematopoietic stem cells. Describe the physiology of primary hemostasis. The mechanisms of homeostatic control. Platelets. The platelet phase of hemostasis. The haemocoagulative factors and the physiology of blood coagulation.
∙ Know the functional structure of the lung. Describe and define lung volumes and capacities. Know the composition of the ambient air. Know the composition of the alveolar air. Know and illustrate the methods of alveolar diffusion and the transport of gases in the blood. Know the physiological role of the lung in acid-base homeostasis. Know and define hypoxia and hypercapnia.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons supported by audiovisual media
Teaching Resources
∙ Costanzo "Fisiologia". EdiSES.
∙ Silverthon "Fisiologia umana". Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
∙ Green "Fisiologia clinica: l'essenziale". Piccin.
∙ Ackermann "Fisiologia umana essenziale"EdiSES.
∙ Langley "Anatomia funzionale e fisiologia" Piccin.
∙ Guyton A.C. " Fisiologia Medica". EdiSES
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Course syllabus
· Etiopathogenesis
Cell damage mechanisms.
· Cell pathology, cell damage and autophagy, cell death: necrosis and apoptosis. Cell adaptations.
· Defenses of the organism.
· General information on infectious diseases.
· Hereditary or genetic diseases and non-hereditary congenital diseases.
· Notes on primary immunodeficiencies.
· Acquired, secondary immunodeficiencies: HIV infection and AIDS syndrome.
· Acute and chronic inflammation.
· Immunopathology: immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases.
· Tumors. Etiology and pathogenesis. Initiation, promotion and progression. Benign and malignant tumors. Gradation and staging. Basic principles of carcinogenesis. Viral carcinogens. The carcinogenesis process. Heredity and tumors. The risk factors. Tumor angiogenesis. Cellular invasiveness and metastasization.
Teaching methods
Frontal lesson and slides that include teaching videos some of which are in English, Pre-recorded video lesson covering the subjects of study
Teaching Resources
Texts indicated in class by the teacher
Course syllabus
Role of Pathological Anatomy in contemporary medicine.
The different types of pathological anatomical examination.
Notions on the preparation techniques of histological and cytological preparations.
Method of sending the material in Pathological Anatomy.
Pathological anatoma diagnosis.
Main pathologies of the respiratory system.
Main diseases of the digestive system and attached glands.
Main pathologies of the circulatory system.
Main pathologies of male and female urinary and genital systems.
Main pathologies of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Main pathologies of the auditory system.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons supported by audiovisual media
Teaching Resources
Texts indicated in class by the teacher
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Scita Giorgio
MED/08 - PATHOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Vingiani Andrea
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Educational website(s)
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