Plant Biology and Pharmaceutical botany

A.Y. 2021/2022
8
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/15
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Learning objectives (nuovo testo da inserire in W4):
The aim of the course is to provide the basic knowledge on the structure and function of the plant cell, of the organelles involved in the processes of cell differentiation, respiration, photosynthesis, plant reproduction and growth, on the tissues and organs that characterize vascular plants. The course also provides information on the strategies adopted by plants to interact with the surrounding environment and mediated by the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites and on the importance of plants in many aspects of human life.
Another aim of the course is to provide students with the fundamentals of Pharmaceutical botany with special emphasis on the recognition and description of selected medicinal plant species. During the lectures we will describe the discriminating characters of selected plant species belonging to the following Orders, by indicating the drug and its morphology, anatomy and content in active principles: Pteridophytes (Equisetales), Gymnosperms (Pinaceae, Gingkaceae, Taxaceae), Angiosperms Dicotyledons (Magnoliales, Laurales, Fagales, Illiciales, Ranunculales, Piperales, Papaverales, Hamamelidales, Urticales, Polygonales, Theales, Malvales, Violales, Salicales, Ericales, Rosales, Fabales, Myrtales, Euphorbiales, Rhamnales, Linales, Sapindales, Apiales, Gentianales, Solanales, Lamiales, Plantaginales, Scrophulariales, Dipsacales, Asterales) and Monocotyledons (Arecales, Poales, Zingiberales, Liliales, Orchidales).
The practical lessons and the visits to the Città Studi Botanical Garden (Milan) and to the Ghirardi Botanical Garden (Toscolano Maderno, BS) will allow to complete the course.
The knowledge of these topics will serve as basis for the courses of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will be able to acquire theoretical and basic knowledge to:

- describe the structure of the plant cells, of the cellular organelles involved in cellular respiration, photosynthesis, reproduction and growth, and the structure of tissues and organs;
- recognize and describe the structure of the organs in transverse and longitudinal sections in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, both Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons;
- describe how plants interact with the surrounding environment through the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites;
- describe the relevance of plants in the food, textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic sectors etc;
- explain the basic topics of Pharmaceutical botany;
- recognize and identify the species, genus, family and order of selected medicinal plants;
- describe the distinctive botanical characters of the selected medicinal plants, the drug and its active principles;
- describe the ecological roles of these secondary metabolites (e.g., insect repellent or insect attractants) and to know basic information on their biological/pharmacological activities.

The verification of the ability to apply the theoretical and basic knowledge acquired in the course will be carried out by evaluating the results obtained in specific practical experiences in the botanical gardens through the solution of problems involving the knowledge of the topics specified in the educational objectives.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AL

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
With regards to the methods of providing training activities for the academic year 2021/22, more specific indications will be given in the coming months, based on the evolution of the health situation.
Course syllabus
PLANT BIOLOGY MODULE

Animal and plant organisms, differences
Plant nutrition: autotroph and heterotroph orgamisms.
Plant cell
Plastids: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts
Vacuole: origin, development, functions. Vacuolar content with particular reference to secondary metabolites.
Transport across the plasma membrane. Osmotic phenomena, plasmolysis and deplasmolysis. Osmotic pressure, turgor pressure.

Middle lamella and cell wall. Genesis and development of the cell wall. Cell wall functions.
Chemical components of the cell wall: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin substances. Secondary modifications of the cell wall: lignification, suberization, mineralization, cutinization.

Tissues in higher plant. Primary and secondary meristematic tissues. Embryonic growth and distension growth. Differentiation. Adult tissues: parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, secretory, conductive.

Organography: stem, leaves, root apparatus.
Stem anatomy: vegetative apex, stem primary structure of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Stem secondary structure of Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms. Heteroxylous and homoxylous wood. Functioning of the vascular cambium.

Root anatomy: root apex, root primary structure of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Roots secondary structure of Dicotyledons.

Leaves: form, structure and function of the leaves of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Gas exchanges between the leaf and the external environment and their regulation mechanisms. Functioning of stomata.

Photosynthesis

Seed and germination

PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY MODULE

Introduction to Pharmaceutical Botany: the concept of medicinal plant, drug, active principle, balsamic time.
Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes: reproductive cycle
Algae: general information
Rhodophyta (Chondrus crispus and genus Gelidium cited), Chromophyta (notes: Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae), Chlorophyta (notes: Chlorophyceae, Charophyceae)
Lichens: notes
Mosses: general information (Marchantia polymorpha and genus Mnium cited)
Pteridophytes
Rhyniophyta (Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii),
Psilophyta (Psilotum nudum),
Lycophyta (Lycopodium clavatum),
Spenophyta (Equisetum arvense),
Filicophyta (ferns)(Adiantum capilus-veneris, Dryopteris filix-max)
cited: Osmunda regalis, Polipodium vulgare, Phyllitis scolopendrium
Spermatophytes: taxonomy, importance and biology and of the seed.
Gymnosperms:
Cycadophyta, general information (Cycas revoluta)
Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo biloba)
Conoferophyta, Coniferales
1. Pinaceae (Picea abies, Abies alba, genus Pinus, Larix decidua, Cedrus libani)
2. Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus communis)
3. Taxaceae (Taxus baccata)
Gnetophyta, general informations and notes on the genera Ephedra, Gnetum, Welwitschia
Angiosperms: general information
A detailed knowledge about the discriminating characters and about the main species of the botanical families listed hereafter is firmly required. The species listed in brackets should also be studied in detail.
1. Ranunculaceae (genera Aconitum, Helleborus)
2. Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas, P. somniferum, Chelidonium majus)
3. Cannabaceae (Cannabis indica, Humulus lupulus)
4. Fagaceae (Fagus sylvatica, genus Quercus, Castanea sativa)
5. Salicaceae (Salix alba, Populus nigra)
Fabales: common characters
6. Mimosceae (ornamental species, Acacia senegal)
7. Caesalpinaceae (Ceratonia siliqua, Tamarindus indica, Cassia angustifolia)
8. Fabaceae (food, medicinal and fodder species and known species of the Italian flora; in detail Cytisus scoparius and Spartium junceum; Glycyrrhiza glabra cited)
9. Apiaceae (Pimpinella anisum, Conium maculatum)
10. Solanaceae (food species, deadly nightshade, henbane, stramonium)
11. Lamiaceae (Lavandula angustifolia)
12. Oleaceae (ornamental species, Olea europaea, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus ornus)
13. Scrophulariaceae (Digitalis purpurea; genera Verbascum and Veronica cited)
14. Asteraceae (food, medicinal and ornamental species, in detail Artemisia absintium and Chamomilla recutita; Sylibum marianum, Arctium lappa, Taraxacum officinale, Arnica montana cited)
15. Aloaceae (Aloe barbadensis, Aloe ferox)
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required.
Teaching methods
The course consists of 2 modules: Plant Biology and Pharmaceutical Botany for a total of 8 CFU.

Lectures and exercises
The course includes lectures and classroom exercises, with particular reference to plant anatomy, as well as field exercises frequently carried out at the Botanic Garden of Città Studi (Milan) and at the G.E. Ghirardi Botanic Garden (Toscolano Maderno, Bs), both annexed to the University of Milan. The hands-on method is used (touching with the hands, knowing through doing): the students become the architects of the lesson itself, researching, observing, using the 5 senses, drawing, recognizing, proposing and even planning. The products of this activity often become lessons given by the students themselves.

Exam simulations
During the course, exam simulations are provided as an important moment of comparison and verification of the knowledge acquired. They are scheduled at the end of each of the two modules of Plant Biology and Pharmaceutical Botany. Each of the students is given an exam topic to be carried out in a time agreed with the teacher. Students can consult their notes and textbook and work in groups. At the end of the test, the teacher makes the correction in the classroom.

Other educational proposal
Diverse educational proposals vary from year to year, from workshops (by example, the workshop "Making botany in the garden", realized in 2015) to itinerant exhibitions (by example, the exhibition "SeductionRepulsion: what plants don't say"). Each year, two days of study are organized in May at the G.E. Ghirardi Botanic Garden, entirely dedicated to medicinal plants, in occasion of the international event Fascination of Plant Day.
Teaching Resources
Maugini E., Maleci Bini L., Mariotti Lippi M. 2014. Botanica Farmaceutica, Piccin, Padova.
Leporatti M.L., Foddai S., Tommassini L. 2001. Testo atlante di anatomia vegetale e delle piante officinali. Piccin, Padova
Curricular lessons, seminar lessons, summary sheets and other educational materials are available on Ariel.
Assessment methods and Criteria
During the course in itinere tests relating to the partial teaching program are scheduled, or alternatively exam tests relating to the overall program, as detailed below.

In itinere test
They are proposed at the end of each of the 2 modules of the course. The test relating to the Plant Biology program is scheduled during the period of teaching interruption (generally at the end of April), the test relating to the Pharmaceutical Botany program is scheduled at mid-June.
These are written tests consisting of 30 multiple-choice questions each (4 answers are proposed): the first in itinere test concerns the Plant Biology program, the second in itinere test concerns the Pharmaceutical Botany program.
The time available is 30 minutes. At the discretion of the teacher, an exercise test can be added, with an increase of time up to 45 minutes. The test starting from 18 correct answers is considered passed. Passing the first in itinere test relating to the Plant Biology program guarantees access to the second in itinere test relating to the Pharmaceutical Botany program.
The outcome of the first in itinere test is communicated directly by the teacher. Upon passing the second in itinere test, the overall result of the exam is recorded given by the average of the outcomes of the two in itinere tests.

Exam test
7 exam sessions, relating to the overall teaching program, are scheduled and distributed from October 2021 to September 2022.
It is a written test consisting of 30 multiple choice questions (4 answers are proposed) concerning the programs of Plant Biology (15 questions) and Pharmaceutical Botany (15 questions). The time available is 30 minutes. At the discretion of the teacher, an exercise test can be added, with an increase of time up to 45 minutes. The test starting from 18 correct answers is considered passed.

An overall assessment is also carried out based on the student's participation in the lectures, exercises and events proposed. These assessments are not penalizing for non-attending students, but are intended to enhance the active participation of students.
Pharmaceutical botany
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Giuliani Claudia
Plant Biology
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 24 hours

Linea MZ

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
The modules of Plant Biology and Pharmaceutical Botany will be delivered in the second semester. If the emergency phase will not allow the teaching delivery "in presence", lessons will be held in synchronous mode on Teams platform following the same times schedules for teaching in presence. The teaching material (slides of the lessons in PDF format and video-lessons) will be available on the Ariel platform dedicated to teaching. The programme and reference teaching material will not be changed.
Exams will be conducted remotely, using the MS Teams platform until further notice. On the SIFA website, students will find exam dates for the current academic year, with an indication of the timetable.
Course syllabus
PLANT BIOLOGY MODULE

Animal and plant organisms, differences
Plant nutrition: autotroph and heterotroph orgamisms.
Plant cell
Plastids: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts
Vacuole: origin, development, functions. Vacuolar content with particular reference to secondary metabolites.
Transport across the plasma membrane. Osmotic phenomena, plasmolysis and deplasmolysis. Osmotic pressure, turgor pressure.

Middle lamella and cell wall. Genesis and development of the cell wall. Cell wall functions.
Chemical components of the cell wall: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin substances. Secondary modifications of the cell wall: lignification, suberization, mineralization, cutinization.

Tissues in higher plant. Primary and secondary meristematic tissues. Embryonic growth and distension growth. Differentiation. Adult tissues: parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, secretory, conductive.

Organography: stem, leaves, root apparatus.
Stem anatomy: vegetative apex, stem primary structure of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Stem secondary structure of Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms. Heteroxylous and homoxylous wood. Functioning of the vascular cambium.

Root anatomy: root apex, root primary structure of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Roots secondary structure of Dicotyledons.

Leaves: form, structure and function of the leaves of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms. Gas exchanges between the leaf and the external environment and their regulation mechanisms. Functioning of stomata.

Photosynthesis

Seed and germination

PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY MODULE

Introduction to Pharmaceutical Botany: the concept of medicinal plant, drug, active principle, balsamic time.
Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes: reproductive cycle
Algae: general information
Rhodophyta (Chondrus crispus and genus Gelidium cited), Chromophyta (notes: Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae), Chlorophyta (notes: Chlorophyceae, Charophyceae)
Lichens: notes
Mosses: general information (Marchantia polymorpha and genus Mnium cited)
Pteridophytes
Rhyniophyta (Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii),
Psilophyta (Psilotum nudum),
Lycophyta (Lycopodium clavatum),
Spenophyta (Equisetum arvense),
Filicophyta (ferns)(Adiantum capilus-veneris, Dryopteris filix-max)
cited: Osmunda regalis, Polipodium vulgare, Phyllitis scolopendrium
Spermatophytes: taxonomy, importance and biology and of the seed.
Gymnosperms:
Cycadophyta, general information (Cycas revoluta)
Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo biloba)
Conoferophyta, Coniferales
1. Pinaceae (Picea abies, Abies alba, genus Pinus, Larix decidua, Cedrus libani)
2. Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus communis)
3. Taxaceae (Taxus baccata)
Gnetophyta, general informations and notes on the genera Ephedra, Gnetum, Welwitschia
Angiosperms: general information
A detailed knowledge about the discriminating characters and about the main species of the botanical families listed hereafter is firmly required. The species listed in brackets should also be studied in detail.
1. Ranunculaceae (genera Aconitum, Helleborus)
2. Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas, P. somniferum, Chelidonium majus)
3. Cannabaceae (Cannabis indica, Humulus lupulus)
4. Fagaceae (Fagus sylvatica, genus Quercus, Castanea sativa)
5. Salicaceae (Salix alba, Populus nigra)
Fabales: common characters
6. Mimosceae (ornamental species, Acacia senegal)
7. Caesalpinaceae (Ceratonia siliqua, Tamarindus indica, Cassia angustifolia)
8. Fabaceae (food, medicinal and fodder species and known species of the Italian flora; in detail Cytisus scoparius and Spartium junceum; Glycyrrhiza glabra cited)
9. Apiaceae (Pimpinella anisum, Conium maculatum)
10. Solanaceae (food species, deadly nightshade, henbane, stramonium)
11. Lamiaceae (Lavandula angustifolia)
12. Oleaceae (ornamental species, Olea europaea, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus ornus)
13. Scrophulariaceae (Digitalis purpurea; genera Verbascum and Veronica cited)
14. Asteraceae (food, medicinal and ornamental species, in detail Artemisia absintium and Chamomilla recutita; Sylibum marianum, Arctium lappa, Taraxacum officinale, Arnica montana cited)
15. Aloaceae (Aloe barbadensis, Aloe ferox)
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required.
Teaching methods
The course consists of 2 modules: Plant Biology and Pharmaceutical Botany for a total of 8 CFU.
There will be lectures and classroom exercises. During the exercises will be proposed questions on topics in class and concerning plant anatomy, reproduction, secondary metabolites produced by plants and hints on their use in medicine. Students will then be able to self-assess their preparation for the exam. A visit to the Botanical Garden of Città Studi (Milan) will complete the exercises and will allow students to see and touch various medicinal plants studied during the lessons.
Teaching Resources
Maugini E., Maleci Bini L., Mariotti Lippi M. 2014. Botanica Farmaceutica, Piccin, Padova.
Leporatti M.L., Foddai S., Tommassini L. 2001. Testo atlante di anatomia vegetale e delle piante officinali. Piccin, Padova
Curricular lessons, seminar lessons, summary sheets and other educational materials are available on Ariel.
Assessment methods and Criteria
During the lessons, students will be encouraged to ask questions regarding the topics covered. They will also have to play an active part during the exercises, answering the questions proposed by the teacher on topics taken in class. The exercises will allow the teacher to evaluate the students' preparation. The oral exam will consist of a series of questions on plant biology followed by questions regarding the Pharmaceutical Botany, in which the student must be able to recognize and describe the medicinal plants that the teacher will show him through color photos. It should also know what are the secondary metabolites extracted, their biological effect (food deterrence or other), and general information about their pharmacological activity.
Pharmaceutical botany
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Pinna Christian
Plant Biology
BIO/15 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Pinna Christian
Professor(s)
Reception:
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, via Mangiagalli 25, second floor, office number 2013