Biological and Morphological Bases of Life (biology, anatomy and histology)

A.Y. 2022/2023
6
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/13 BIO/16 BIO/17
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course will provide knowledge in the characteristics of the organs of the various apparatuses in relation to spatial reference plans, in the fundamental biological organization of the living organisms, to understand the structure and the vital processes of the cells, the mechanisms through which they get energy, grow, reproduce and interact with the environment.
The course also aims at providing basic knowledge in the morphological characteristics of systems, apparatuses, organs, tissues, cells and subcellular structures of the human body, as well as in their main morpho-functional correlates; basic knowledge in the structural organization of the human body, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level; knowledge in the structures of the musculoskeletal system and the systems that allow and regulate their functioning.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
· describe the structural organization of the human body, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level;
· describe the characteristics of the constituent organs of the various apparatuses in relation to spatial reference plans;
· describe the fundamental biological organization of living organisms to understand the structure and vital processes of cells, the mechanisms through which they get energy, grow, reproduce and interact with the environment;
· describe the essential morphological characteristics of the systems, apparatuses, organs, tissues, cells and subcellular structures of the human body, as well as their main morpho-functional correlates;
· discuss in depth the structures of the musculoskeletal system and the systems that allow and regulate their functioning.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Prerequisites for admission
Be enrolled in the 1st year of the course of study; Possess high school science knowledge.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Multiple choice questionnaire and interview for students who have passed the test
Experimental biology
Course syllabus
1. The imprint of evolution on the structural and functional organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic cell; the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria; the role of viruses and mobile genetic elements in the evolution of bacteria and eukaryotes
2. Chemical composition of cells, macromolecules, role of water and weak interactions
3. Informational molecules: Structure, localization and function of proteins
4. Informational molecules: DNA as the site of genetic information
5. Structure of polynucleotides and double helix
6. Organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic genome
7. DNA replication in bacteria and eukaryotes
8. RNA classes; messenger RNAs
9. Transcription in prokaryotes and its regulation
10. Transcription in eukaryotes, its regulation
11. Translation in bacteria and eukaryotes: genetic code, tRNA, rRNA and ribosomes, biosynthesis and protein targeting
12. Life cycles of organisms, and mammalian cell division cycles: mitosis, meiosis and gametogenesis
13. The chromosomal bases of inheritance: the karyotype and its anomalies, the determination of sex and the inactivation of the X chromosome
14. Point mutations: causes, and genetic and evolutionary consequences
15. Mendel's laws, Mendelism in man and family trees
Teaching methods
Classroom-taught lessons. Competitive interactive tests on the understanding of the lessons (gamification). Group work with short public presentation by students.
Both lectures and presentations given by the students are published in PDF format on the Ariel website, in complete (PPT plus audiovisual files) format in a dedicated Dropbox folder
Teaching Resources
David Sadava, David M. Hillis, H. Craig Heller, Sally D. Hacker
Elementi di Biologia e Genetica, 5a edizione/2019 (Zanichelli)
Anatomy
Course syllabus
- General principles of Anatomy
- Constitutive principles of the human body
- Skeletal locomotors apparatus
- Skeletal muscle apparatus
- Anatomical bases of movement
- Circulatory system
- Cardio-vascular system
- Respiratory system
- Digestive system
- Urinary system
- Endocrine system
- Central Nervous System
- Peripheral nervous system
Teaching methods
Classroom-taught lessons
Teaching Resources
Frederic H. Martini, Michael J. Timmons, Robert B. Tallitsch. ANATOMIA UMANA, ed. EDISES
Histology
Course syllabus
- The cell and its components seen synthetically in relation to the fundamental biological properties
- The tissues
- Epithelial tissues: t. coating; t. glandular.
- Connective tissues:
- Connective tissue proper; t. adipose;
- Tissues with a supporting function: t. cartilaginous; t. bone;
- Tissues with trophic function: blood; sap.
- Muscle tissue: smooth, skeletal striated, myocardial striatum
- Nervous tissue
Teaching methods
Classroom-taught lessons
Teaching Resources
Frederic H. Martini, Michael J. Timmons, Robert B. Tallitsch. ANATOMIA UMANA, ed. EDISES
Anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Bedoni Marzia
Experimental biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Gallina Andrea
Histology
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Gualerzi Alice