Physiology and Pathology

A.Y. 2022/2023
Overall hours
BIO/09 MED/04
Learning objectives
The course is aiming at providing general basis of the functioning of the different organs and systems of the human body and their integration and of the functional control mechanisms in normal conditions;
The course will also provide the general basis of pathogenesis and pathophysiological mechanisms and of the causes of disease in the human being.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will be able to:
· discuss the function of the various organs of the human body;
· discuss the dynamic integration of the various organs into systems;
· discuss functional control mechanisms in normal conditions;
· discuss fundamental pathogenesis and pathophysiological mechanisms;
· discuss the causes of human diseases.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Prerequisites for admission
Being enrolled in the 1st year of the degree program
Basic knowledge of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology at the level of high school
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written test with quiz
Course syllabus
- Cell membrane: functions, structure, passages of water and solutes, osmosis, transporters, Na+/K+ pump, resting potential
- Excitable tissues: action potential, cable properties, conduction, nerve fibers, synapses, nervous integration
- Muscle: excitation-contraction coupling, mechanics, motor units, motor neurons, force control
- Sensitivity: general properties, thermal sensitivity and pain, tactile sensitivity, proprioception
- Special senses: vision, hearing, equilibrium
- Motor system: spinal cord and reflexes, autonomic nervous system, postural control
- Motor system: structure of the brain, motor cortex and descending pathways, cerebellum, basal ganglia
- Heart and circulation: electrical activity of the heart, pumping function, blood circulation, regulation (autonomous system)
- Respiration: breathing mechanics, gas exchange, effects on acid-base balance, regulation (autonomous system)
- Kidney: fluid and solute exchanges, glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion, regulation of body fluids (autonomous system), effects on acid-base balance
Teaching methods
Traditional lectures in classroom
Teaching Resources
W.J. Germann e C.L. Stanfield, "Fisiologia", EdiSES
D.U. Silverthorn, "Fisiologia umana - un approccio integrato", Pearson
L. Zocchi (et al.), "Principi di Fisiologia", EdiSES
For the motor system: Baldissera, F. e Porro, C.A. (edited by). "Fisiologia e biofisica medica", vol I, Poletto editore
During the course the lessons slides will be made available in ARIEL
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Course syllabus
DAMAGE AND CELL DEATH: Cellular responses to damage; Cell death; apoptosis; necrosis
CELL GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION: Cellular adaptations (hyperplasia, hypertrophy and atrophy)
COMPONENTS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Structure and effector functions of antibodies; Generation of B cell diversity; The Major Histocompatibility Complex, the Diversity of MHC molecules and gene polymorphism; Structure, function and distribution of MHC class I and II molecules; Antigen recognition and activation of T lymphocytes; structure and generation of TCR diversity; Accessory molecules CD4 and CD8; Effectors mechanism of cell-mediated immunity: T helper lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Effector mechanisms of autoimmunity
TRANSPLANTATION OF TISSUES AND ORGANS: Hyperacute, acute and chronic rejection of transplants; Bone Marrow transplantation: the GVHD reaction
INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR PROCESSES: Acute inflammation; Vascular changes; Diapedesis and Chemotaxis; Phagocytosis and mechanisms of killing microorganisms; Chemical mediators; Systemic reactions of inflammation; Chronic inflammation and repair process
NEOPLASIA: classification; Benign neoplastic growth; Malignant neoplastic growth; Molecular bases of cancer: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; Physical, chemical and viral carcinogenesis; Cancer cell biology; Metastatic process
HEMODYNAMIC ALTERATIONS: Homeostasis and Thrombosis; Edema; Embolism; Infarction; Shock
Teaching methods
Traditional lectures in classroom
Teaching Resources
G.M. Pontieri "Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia Generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie." (Piccin Ed.)
During the course the lessons slides will be made available in ARIEL
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Sfondrini Lucia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
By appointment via e-mail, usually on Mondays from 14:30 to 17:30
By videocall in Microsoft Teams or in presence at the Section Physiology, Dept. Pathophysiology and Transplantation, via L. Mangiagalli 32, Milano - 2nd floor, room n. 10.