#
Physics

A.Y. 2024/2025

Learning objectives

Provide the necessary elements to understand the main physical phenomena, especially those more specifically related to the figure formed by the Degree Course.

Expected learning outcomes

The student acquires the basic knowledge to interpret the main physical phenomena; conceptually sets and numerically faces problems inherent to the physical aspects of agricultural and environmental disciplines.

**Lesson period:**
Second semester

**Assessment methods:** Esame**Assessment result:** voto verbalizzato in trentesimi

Single course

This course can be attended as a single course.

Course syllabus and organization

### Single session

Responsible

Lesson period

Second semester

**Course syllabus**

General introduction about the course and its topics.

Relative and absolute errors, units of measurement (u.o.m.) and scientific notation. Significant digits, Dimensional control (dimensional equations).

- One-dimension kinematics. Mean velocity (vectorial) and mean speed, instant velocity (with reference to the concept of first derivative) and law of uniform rectilinear motion (u.r.m.).

- Mean and instant acceleration (with references to the concept of second derivative). Uniformly accelerated motion (u.a.m) and its laws.

- Two and three dimension kinematics: vectors and references to vector algebra (sum and difference of vectors, decomposition of a vector and unit vector units, both in plane and Cartesian space, product of a vector by a scalar, scalar product and vector product of two vectors). The fall of the bodies and the motion of the bullets. The motion of projectiles as a composition of u.r.m. and u.a.m. Characteristic quantities of projectile motion: range, flight time, maximum altitude. Parabolic trajectory.

- The uniform circular motion (u.c.m.). Tangential velocity, angular velocity, vector velocity and centripetal acceleration.

- Uniform circular motion in Cartesian coordinates. The harmonic motion, its periodicity of other characteristic quantities. The u.c.m. as composition of two harmonic motions.

- Dynamics. Newton's principle, mass and inertia. Mass operational definition. Forces: operational definition of force: Newton's equation F = ma and the second law of dynamics.

- Examples of forces: gravitational force, weight force and the gravity acceleration g. Third law of dynamics. Support reactions, ropes and tensions.

- Methodology for the solution of dynamics problems (forces or free body diagram, vector equation -> scalar equations...).

- Friction forces. Friction as a reaction. Microscopic origin of friction. Static and dynamic friction. Friction of a body moving in a medium.

- Power and the its relationship with force and velocity.

- The kinetic energy theorem (work-energy relationship).

- Conservative forces: potential energy and conservation of mechanical energy, with particular reference to gravitational (weight) force and elastic force (and Hooke's law). Generalized energy conservation in the presence of non-conservative forces.

- Only if compatible with the following course's development: linear momentum and its conservation law. Equilibrium of masses moving both linearly and circularly. Principles of rotational dynamics: angular momentum, moment of a force, moment of inertia. Leverages of diverse kind.

- Mechanics of Fluids. Introduction to fluid statics: density and pressure. Stevin's law, Pascal's principle (example: hydraulic jack). Archimedes' principle and buoyancy, apparent weight.

- Dynamics of fluids. The ideal fluids. The flow rate and conservation of mass: continuity equation in laminar regime for incompressible fluids. The conservation of mechanical energy in fluids in laminar (and irrotational) regime: Bernoulli's law in absence of friction. Various examples. Venturi's and Torricelli's laws.

- Applications of Bernoulli's Theorem: liquid leakage from a small hole, Venturi tube.

- Heat and temperature. Thermal phenomena. Temperature and thermometers: the linear and volume thermal expansion, the Celsius scale and the ideal gas scale (Kelvin scale). Heat as energy transferred as a consequence of temperature difference: fundamental equation of calorimetry, heat capacity and specific heat. Molar specific heat. Phase changes, thermal arrest and latent heat.

- Heat transfer mechanisms: heat conduction and Fourier's law, convection and thermal radiation (and Stefan-Boltzmann's and Wien's laws). The electromagnetic spectrum and the greenhouse effect.

- Perfect (ideal) and real gases: macroscopic and microscopic points of view, critical temperature. Avogadro's, Boyle's, Charles' and Gay-Lussac's laws. State equation for an ideal gas. Kinetic theory of gases applied to ideal gases: Joule-Clausius law, and relationship between temperature and molecular speed (root mean square velocity). Total kinetic energy (internal energy) for monoatomic ideal gases.

- Thermodynamics. Thermodynamic systems and thermodynamic transformations. Quasi-static transformations, friction and reversibility. Work of pressure forces in a thermodynamic system, and in isochoric, isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic transformations. Conservation of energy and first law of thermodynamics. Internal energy as a state function.

- Thermal and refrigerating machines: diagrams of heat and work. Performance and efficiency. Statement of the second law of thermodynamics according to Kelvin and according to Clausius. Consequences of the second principle on the efficiency of thermal machines. Maximum efficiency (Carnot's thermal machine).

- Electrostatics. Electrical charge, Coulomb's force. Comparison between electrostatic force and gravitational force. Electrical field and its field lines.

- Work of the electrostatic force. Electrical potential energy and electrical potential. Capacitors and capacity. Acceleration of charges in an electrical field. Electrical current: the electrical resistance of the material and Ohm's first law. Microscopic mechanisms related to electrons currents in materials. The microscopic origin of electrical resistance. Ohm's second law. The power dissipated in a conductor: Joule effect. Resistors in series and in parallel.

Relative and absolute errors, units of measurement (u.o.m.) and scientific notation. Significant digits, Dimensional control (dimensional equations).

- One-dimension kinematics. Mean velocity (vectorial) and mean speed, instant velocity (with reference to the concept of first derivative) and law of uniform rectilinear motion (u.r.m.).

- Mean and instant acceleration (with references to the concept of second derivative). Uniformly accelerated motion (u.a.m) and its laws.

- Two and three dimension kinematics: vectors and references to vector algebra (sum and difference of vectors, decomposition of a vector and unit vector units, both in plane and Cartesian space, product of a vector by a scalar, scalar product and vector product of two vectors). The fall of the bodies and the motion of the bullets. The motion of projectiles as a composition of u.r.m. and u.a.m. Characteristic quantities of projectile motion: range, flight time, maximum altitude. Parabolic trajectory.

- The uniform circular motion (u.c.m.). Tangential velocity, angular velocity, vector velocity and centripetal acceleration.

- Uniform circular motion in Cartesian coordinates. The harmonic motion, its periodicity of other characteristic quantities. The u.c.m. as composition of two harmonic motions.

- Dynamics. Newton's principle, mass and inertia. Mass operational definition. Forces: operational definition of force: Newton's equation F = ma and the second law of dynamics.

- Examples of forces: gravitational force, weight force and the gravity acceleration g. Third law of dynamics. Support reactions, ropes and tensions.

- Methodology for the solution of dynamics problems (forces or free body diagram, vector equation -> scalar equations...).

- Friction forces. Friction as a reaction. Microscopic origin of friction. Static and dynamic friction. Friction of a body moving in a medium.

- Power and the its relationship with force and velocity.

- The kinetic energy theorem (work-energy relationship).

- Conservative forces: potential energy and conservation of mechanical energy, with particular reference to gravitational (weight) force and elastic force (and Hooke's law). Generalized energy conservation in the presence of non-conservative forces.

- Only if compatible with the following course's development: linear momentum and its conservation law. Equilibrium of masses moving both linearly and circularly. Principles of rotational dynamics: angular momentum, moment of a force, moment of inertia. Leverages of diverse kind.

- Mechanics of Fluids. Introduction to fluid statics: density and pressure. Stevin's law, Pascal's principle (example: hydraulic jack). Archimedes' principle and buoyancy, apparent weight.

- Dynamics of fluids. The ideal fluids. The flow rate and conservation of mass: continuity equation in laminar regime for incompressible fluids. The conservation of mechanical energy in fluids in laminar (and irrotational) regime: Bernoulli's law in absence of friction. Various examples. Venturi's and Torricelli's laws.

- Applications of Bernoulli's Theorem: liquid leakage from a small hole, Venturi tube.

- Heat and temperature. Thermal phenomena. Temperature and thermometers: the linear and volume thermal expansion, the Celsius scale and the ideal gas scale (Kelvin scale). Heat as energy transferred as a consequence of temperature difference: fundamental equation of calorimetry, heat capacity and specific heat. Molar specific heat. Phase changes, thermal arrest and latent heat.

- Heat transfer mechanisms: heat conduction and Fourier's law, convection and thermal radiation (and Stefan-Boltzmann's and Wien's laws). The electromagnetic spectrum and the greenhouse effect.

- Perfect (ideal) and real gases: macroscopic and microscopic points of view, critical temperature. Avogadro's, Boyle's, Charles' and Gay-Lussac's laws. State equation for an ideal gas. Kinetic theory of gases applied to ideal gases: Joule-Clausius law, and relationship between temperature and molecular speed (root mean square velocity). Total kinetic energy (internal energy) for monoatomic ideal gases.

- Thermodynamics. Thermodynamic systems and thermodynamic transformations. Quasi-static transformations, friction and reversibility. Work of pressure forces in a thermodynamic system, and in isochoric, isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic transformations. Conservation of energy and first law of thermodynamics. Internal energy as a state function.

- Thermal and refrigerating machines: diagrams of heat and work. Performance and efficiency. Statement of the second law of thermodynamics according to Kelvin and according to Clausius. Consequences of the second principle on the efficiency of thermal machines. Maximum efficiency (Carnot's thermal machine).

- Electrostatics. Electrical charge, Coulomb's force. Comparison between electrostatic force and gravitational force. Electrical field and its field lines.

- Work of the electrostatic force. Electrical potential energy and electrical potential. Capacitors and capacity. Acceleration of charges in an electrical field. Electrical current: the electrical resistance of the material and Ohm's first law. Microscopic mechanisms related to electrons currents in materials. The microscopic origin of electrical resistance. Ohm's second law. The power dissipated in a conductor: Joule effect. Resistors in series and in parallel.

**Prerequisites for admission**

Fundaments of mathematics: algebra, trigonometry, logarithms, functions and their properties; differentiation and integration of functions, and their geometric interpretation. Completed attendance of the mathematics course (and success in the corresponding exam) is strongly suggested (i. e.: almost mandatory).

**Teaching methods**

Theoretical lectures and classes where related problems will be discussed and solved. Regularly following both theoretical lectures and classes is strongly suggested.

**Teaching Resources**

Notes taken during the whole course.

Reference texts:

Jearl Walker (ed.), David Halliday, Robert Resnick

Fondamenti di Fisica, volume unico

Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, ISBN: 9788808182296

oppure:

Raymond A. Serway, John W. Jewett

Principi di Fisica, quinta edizione

Edises, ISBN: 9788879598644

Further Refeernce (for the electrostatics and electrodymanics part):

Douglas C. Giancoli

Fisica, principi e applicazioni, terza edizione

Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, ISBN: 9788808880000

Reference texts:

Jearl Walker (ed.), David Halliday, Robert Resnick

Fondamenti di Fisica, volume unico

Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, ISBN: 9788808182296

oppure:

Raymond A. Serway, John W. Jewett

Principi di Fisica, quinta edizione

Edises, ISBN: 9788879598644

Further Refeernce (for the electrostatics and electrodymanics part):

Douglas C. Giancoli

Fisica, principi e applicazioni, terza edizione

Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, ISBN: 9788808880000

**Assessment methods and Criteria**

Two-step exam: the oral exam could be attended once the written exam will be passed (with note of at least 18 to 30). Evaluation criteria: solid knowledge of all the matters dealt with during the course, clarity and correctness in both written and oral exam. It will be also evaluated the correctness in the use of mathematical tools needed for dealing with classical physics, as well of the diverse units of measure and the right terminology,

FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 6

Practicals: 32 hours

Lessons: 32 hours

Lessons: 32 hours

Professor:
Falqui Andrea

Shifts:

Turno

Professor:
Falqui AndreaProfessor(s)