Fundamentals of basic sciences

A.A. 2021/2022
10
Crediti massimi
124
Ore totali
SSD
BIO/10 FIS/07
Lingua
Inglese
Obiettivi formativi
The Fundamentals of Basic Sciences course is aimed at providing students with fundamental elements of chemistry and physics that are relevant to medical doctors, a mandatory knowledge to understand metabolism processes, interactions between structure, chemical properties and function of compounds found in living organisms, and to create simple and manageable physical models that recapitulate complex phenomena in biological systems.
The chemistry module provides a rigorous introduction to the fundamentals of general and bio-organic chemistry. The structure of this module meets the requirements of the area of life sciences and aims to offer a foundation for further study in chemistry-related disciplines such as biology and biochemistry.
The physics module offers an introduction to Physics focusing on medical applications. The focus of the lectures will be mostly on mechanics, thermodynamics and electrical phenomena, with a brief introduction to the importance of modeling and quantitative thinking in medicine and on feedback and control theory. The proposed approach is meant to privilege general concepts and ideas with strong applications toward understanding and explaining the working principles of the Human Body.
Risultati apprendimento attesi
Students are expected to achieve knowledge on:
- the carbon atom and the nature of its bonds
- chemical kinetics and energy. Chemical equilibrium (role of catalysts)
- nature and properties of aqueous solutions (osmotic pressure)
- acid/base equilibria and buffer solutions.
- redox reactions in inorganic and organic chemistry and related energy
- structures and chemico-physical properties of the principal class of organic compounds
- reactivity of the main classes of organic compounds
- structure, reactivity and function of the most relevant biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins)
- forces and biomechanics
- temperature, gases and breathing
- heat and metabolism, thermal motion, and molecular disorder
- electrical and magnetic phenomena
Programma e organizzazione didattica

Edizione unica

Responsabile
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisiti
CHEMISTRY:
Students are presumed to have a good background in high school chemistry and are expected to have previous knowledge on the following subjects:
· basic structure of atoms
· relative atomic and molecular mass
· the mole concept
· ionic and covalent bond
· balance chemical equations
· basic stoichiometric calculations
· the electronic configuration of atoms
· the periodic properties of atoms
An entrance test will be used to assess the level of knowledge of the prerequisites. To ensure a proficient participation to the lectures, additional activities (e.g. Connect LearnSmart assignments) will be assigned to students failing some parts of the test.

PHYSICS:
According to the THE INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL ADMISSIONS TEST (IMAT) SPECIFICATION (version September 2020, downloadable at the link https://www.admissionstesting.org/Images/473738-imat-test-specification…), students should know the following topics:
· Mathematics prerequisites (some of these topics can be found in the textbook, Appendix A):
· Algebra and numerical sets [Natural numbers, integers, rational and real numbers. Sorting and comparison: scales and scientific notation. Operations and their properties. Proportions and percentages. Powers with integer and rational exponents, and their properties. Roots and their properties. Logarithms (base 10 and base e) and their properties. Elements of combinatorics. Algebraic and polynomial expressions. Major products and nth power of binomial expansions, factorisation of polynomials. Algebraic fractions. Algebraic equations and inequalities of the first and second order. Systems of equations.]
· Functions [Basic concepts of functions and their graphical representations (domain, codomain, sign, continuity, maxima and minima, increasing and decreasing, etc.). Elementary functions: whole and fractional algebraic functions; exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions. Composite and inverse functions. Trigonometric equations and inequalities.]
· Geometry [Polygons and their properties. Circle and circumference. Measurements of lengths, surfaces and volumes. Isometries, similarities and equivalences in the plane. Geometric loci. Measurement of angles in degrees and radians. Sine, cosine, tangent of an angle and their significant values. Trigonometric formulas. Solving triangles. Cartesian reference system in a plane. Distance between two points and the midpoint of a segment. Straight line equation. Conditions for parallel and perpendicular lines. Distance of a point to a line. Equation of the circle, the parabola, the hyperbola, the ellipse and their representation in the Cartesian plane. Pythagoras' theorem. Euclid's first and second theorems.]
· Probability and statistics [Frequency distributions and their graphical representations. Concept of random experiments and events. Probability and frequency.]
· Physics prerequisites (all these topics can be found in the textbook, as specified below):
· Measures [Direct and indirect measures, fundamental and derived quantities, physical dimensions of quantities, knowledge of the metric system and the CGS System of Units, Technical (or practical) (ST) and International System (SI) units of measurement (names and relationships between fundamental and derived units), multiples and sub-multiples (names and values).]
Textbook: 1.5; Appendix B1 to B5
· Kinematics [Kinematic quantities, various types of motion with particular regard to uniform and uniformly accelerating rectilinear motion; uniform circular motion; harmonic motion (for all motions: definition and relationships between quantities).]
Textbook: from 3.1 to 3.3; 4.1; 4.2; 4.4; 4.5; 5.1; 5.2; 5.5; 5.6; from 10.5 to 10.7.
· Dynamics [Vectors and vector operations. Forces, moments of forces about a point. Moment of a force couple. Vector composition of forces. Definition of mass and weight. Acceleration due to gravity. Density and specific gravity. The law of universal gravitation, 1st, 2nd and 3rd laws of motion. Work, kinetic energy, potential energy. Principle of conservation of energy. Impulse and momentum. Principle of conservation of momentum.]
Textbook: Appendix A10; from 2.1 to 2.9; 3.4; 4.3; 4.6; 5.7; from 6.1 to 6.8 (except 6.5); from 7.1 to 7.4; 8.2.
· Fluid mechanics [Pressure, and its unit of measure (not only in the SI system). Archimedes' Principle. Pascal's principle. Stevino's law.]
Textbook: from 9.2 to 9.6 (except 9.5)
· Thermodynamics [Thermometry and calorimetry. Thermal capacity and specific heat capacity. Modes of heat propagation. Changes of state and latent heats. Ideal Gas Laws. First and second laws of thermodynamics.]
Textbook: from 13.1 to 13.5 (except 13.4); from 14.1 to 14.8; from 15.1 to 15.4; 15.8
· Electrostatic and electrodynamics [Coulomb's law. Electric field and potential. Dielectric constant. Capacitors. Capacitors in series and in parallel. Direct current. Ohm's Law. Kirchhoff's Principles. Electrical resistance and resistivity, electrical resistances in series and in parallel. Work, Power, Joule effect. Generators. Electromagnetic induction and alternating currents. Effects of electrical currents (thermal, chemical and magnetic).]
Textbook: from 16.1 to 16.4; from 17.1 to 17.6; from 18.1 to 18.8 (except 18.3); from 20.1 to 20.4; 20.8; 20.9; 21.1; 21.2.

We strongly advise each student to carefully review the list above and to enter the classroom with a knowledge of the listed topics that is sufficient to attend proficiently the physics lectures. The concepts corresponding to the prerequisites will be revised quickly and then applied to the specific areas discussed in this module. An entrance test will be used to assess the level of knowledge of the prerequisites. To ensure a proficient participation to the lectures, additional ungraded activities (e.g. Connect LearnSmart assignments) will be assigned to students failing some parts of the test.
Modalità di verifica dell’apprendimento e criteri di valutazione
The final grade, expressed as a grade out of 30, is the average of a grade for chemistry and a grade for physics, weighted for the number of credits of each module. The exam is deemed to be passed successfully if the grade of each discipline, as well as the final grade are equal to or higher than 18/30. In the event of a full grade (30/30) honors (lode) may be granted.

For each discipline the grade will combine the outcome of:
- A) A final test on the Connect platform, which will include multiple choice questions, exercises and/or open questions. The test will give a score of up to 25/30 points and is deemed to be passed above a minimum score of 15/30;
- B) The outcome of periodic graded assignments or other graded activities throughout the course. These assignments/activities will have a temporal deadline. The score for these activities will range between 0/30 and 5/30 points.
- C) The outcome of a discretionary oral exam that may follow the test whenever at least one of the teachers needs to clarify/discuss specific issues/topics. The oral exam can modify the final score up to +/- 5 points.

The oral exam can be also requested by the student (for example to increase the overall mark). In that case, the exam will cover both disciplines and can modify the final grade up to +/- 5 points.

While the B part will be distributed throughout the semester, it will be possible to sit for the A and C parts starting from the end of the I semester classes (February).

Registration to exams through SIFA is mandatory.
Chemistry and Introductory Biochemistry
Programma
CHEMISTRY:
The lectures of chemistry will give details on the following topics:
· Chemical bonds in organic compounds.
Molecular and hybrid orbitals.
Intermolecular forces
Coordinate bond
Coordination chemistry of bioinorganic compounds
· Solutions of water in the human body
Influence of compound structure on the solution process. Diffusion and osmosis
Real vs ideal solutions. The colligative properties
· Characteristics of chemical reactions: kinetics, equilibrium and energy
Kinetics of a chemical reactions and catalysis
Equilibrium of a chemical reaction and Le Chatelier principle
Energy and thermodynamic of a chemical reaction
· Biological oxidation, redox reactions and electrochemistry
· Acid-base equilibrium and buffer solutions
· Structure and reactivity of organic compounds
Isomers and stereoisomers
Alkanes, halogen compounds and amines
Alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and thioalcohols
Carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids and polyfunctional compounds
· Biomolecules:
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids
Amino acids and proteins

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course of chemistry students will be able to discuss about the following topics:

Chemical bonds in organic compounds.
· Molecular and hybrid orbitals
· Carbon hybridization and molecular geometry
· Hybridization of N and O atoms
· The polar covalent bond.
· Intermolecular forces: hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces
· The coordinative bond.
· Coordination chemistry of bioinorganic compounds. Examples.

Solutions of water in the human body
· The solution process
· Ways of expressing concentration
· Colligative properties of ideal aqueous solutions:
osmosis and its biological importance. Real vs ideal solutions: the van't Hoff coefficient. Osmole and osmolarity.
Gas/water solutions. The Henry's law

Characteristics of chemical reactions: kinetics, equilibrium and energy
· The chemical equation of a reaction
· The reaction diagram
· Rate and order of a reaction
· Activation energy
· Catalysis
· Reversible and irreversible reactions
· Chemical equilibrium
· Meaning of the equilibrium constant value
· The reaction quotients
· Parameters that affect the equilibrium or the rate of a reaction
· Le Chatelier's principle
· The state quantities H and G: endothermic/exothermic reactions, endergonic/exergonic reactions. Spontaneity of a reaction. The Hess'law

Biological oxidation, redox reactions and electrochemistry
· Oxidation and reduction
· Properties of oxidants/reductants
· The oxidation states of the carbon atom
· Redox reactions in organic chemistry
· Energy related to redox reactions. Electrical work and free energy change
· Galvanic cells: the Daniell's cell
· Standard reduction potentials
· The Nernst equation and the biochemical redox potentials.

Acid-base equilibrium and buffer solutions
· The dissociation constant (Kw) of water
· The concentration of H+ in pure water as a reference value for acid/base or neutral solution
· The pH scale
· Strong and weak acids and bases
· The Brønsted-Lowry theory: acids and conjugated bases
· Solutions of weak acids and bases and related equilibrium constants (Ka and Kb)
· pH of strong and weak acid/base solutions
· Polyprotic acids
· Organic acid and bases
· Composition and properties of a buffer solution
· The Henderson-Hasselback equation
· The pH of a buffer solution

Structure and reactivity of organic compounds
· Definition of functional group
· Structure, nomenclature and chemico-physical properties of organic compounds.
· The different forms of isomerism: constitutional, configurational, conformational
· Optical isomerism. Enantiomers. Configuration:D/L and R/S systems
· Glyceraldehyde as a model for D,L-configuration
· Diasteroisomers
Alkanes, halogen compounds and amines
· Reactivity of alkanes
· Reactivity of alkyl halides
· The nucleophilic substitution
· Chemical reactions of amines
Alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and thioalcohols
· The double bond and its reactivity
· Structure of conjugated dienes
· Reactions of aromatic compounds
· Chemical properties and reactivity of alcohols
· Thioalcohols
Carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids and polyfunctional compounds
· Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones: oxidation, reduction, addition and condensation reactions.
· The keto/enol tautomerism
· The aldol condensation
· Acidity and reactivity of carboxylic acids
· Carboxylic acid derivatives: ester, thioester, amides, anhydrides
· Summary of organic chemical reactions
· Dicarboxylic acids
· Unsaturated and hydroxyl carboxylic acids
· Structures, stereochemistry and reactivity of some polyfunctional compounds in the Krebs cycle

Biomolecules
Lipids
· Structure and nomenclature of fatty acids
· Triglycerides, glycerophospholipids and phosphatidyl choline
· Formation, hydrolysis and assembly of lipids
· Steroids
· Glycolipids
Carbohydrates
· Structure, stereochemistry and reactivity of monosaccharides
· Important monosaccharides: aldoses and ketoses
· Monosaccharide configuration. Epimers
· The mechanism of ring closure of a non-cyclic carbohydrate, mutarotation, anomers
· Chemical properties of monosaccharides: oxidation, reduction, formation of esters
· The glycosidic bond: O- and N-glycosides
· Structure of disaccharides
· Reducing and non-reducing sugars
· Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): structure and biological role
Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids
· Structure and properties of nucleoside and nucleotides
· Nucleic acid bases
· Nucleic acids: RNA and DNA. Chemical features and structure
· The phosphodiester bond
· The structural features of AMP, ADP and ATP, and the reactivity of the triphosphate group in ATP.
· Nucleotide coenzymes: NAD and NADH
Amino acids and proteins
· Classification and nomenclature of amino acids
· Amino acids equilibrium in aqueous solution. Amphoteric character: isoionic point. Isoelectric point
· The amide bond and its chemical properties
· Peptides and proteins
· Structure and function of proteins.
· The intramolecular forces that contribute to the three-dimensional structure of a protein
· Denaturation of proteins
· Examples of reaction mechanisms at physiological pH

Tutorials:
Tutorial sessions are planned to integrate theoretical concepts through in-class resolution of exercises on solutions, acids and bases, buffer solutions, redox reactions, and to become familiar with the nomenclature, reactivity and chemical characteristics of the main organic functional groups in biomolecules.

PHYSICS:
The lectures of medical physics will cover the following topics:
· The standard body: models, approximations, dimensional analysis and scaling.
· The composite body: fifty shades of biomaterials
· The solid body: stress, strain, moduli and other biomechanical properties
· The liquid body: flow, transport (diffusion, osmosis, ), dissipation, interfaces
· The gaseous body: gas mixtures, partial pressures, gas exchanges, diving
· The balanced body: torques and forces (gravity, friction, ), bones, tendons, muscles, joints
· The moving body: walking, sprinting, running, jumping, falling, swimming, flying
· The impacting body: landing, colliding, punching and trauma
· The thermal body: temperature, energy, heat, work, power, metabolism
· The controlled body: sensing, feedback and control
· The "bloody" body: the fluid dynamics of blood circulation
· The breathing body: the physics of the lungs and breathing
Metodi didattici
Synchronous learning (on-line and/or classroom): lectures, discussions, debates, exercises.
Asynchronous learning: audio-video based (pre-recoreded, multimedia platforms); text-based (Connect/Moodle assignments, electronic documents, discussion boards).
Materiale di riferimento
Janice Gorzynski Smith, General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry, 4th Edition, Mc-Graw Hill Education ©2022
Medical Physic
Programma
CHEMISTRY:
The lectures of chemistry will give details on the following topics:
· Chemical bonds in organic compounds.
Molecular and hybrid orbitals.
Intermolecular forces
Coordinate bond
Coordination chemistry of bioinorganic compounds
· Solutions of water in the human body
Influence of compound structure on the solution process. Diffusion and osmosis
Real vs ideal solutions. The colligative properties
· Characteristics of chemical reactions: kinetics, equilibrium and energy
Kinetics of a chemical reactions and catalysis
Equilibrium of a chemical reaction and Le Chatelier principle
Energy and thermodynamic of a chemical reaction
· Biological oxidation, redox reactions and electrochemistry
· Acid-base equilibrium and buffer solutions
· Structure and reactivity of organic compounds
Isomers and stereoisomers
Alkanes, halogen compounds and amines
Alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and thioalcohols
Carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids and polyfunctional compounds
· Biomolecules:
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids
Amino acids and proteins

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course of chemistry students will be able to discuss about the following topics:

Chemical bonds in organic compounds.
· Molecular and hybrid orbitals
· Carbon hybridization and molecular geometry
· Hybridization of N and O atoms
· The polar covalent bond.
· Intermolecular forces: hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces
· The coordinative bond.
· Coordination chemistry of bioinorganic compounds. Examples.

Solutions of water in the human body
· The solution process
· Ways of expressing concentration
· Colligative properties of ideal aqueous solutions:
osmosis and its biological importance. Real vs ideal solutions: the van't Hoff coefficient. Osmole and osmolarity.
Gas/water solutions. The Henry's law

Characteristics of chemical reactions: kinetics, equilibrium and energy
· The chemical equation of a reaction
· The reaction diagram
· Rate and order of a reaction
· Activation energy
· Catalysis
· Reversible and irreversible reactions
· Chemical equilibrium
· Meaning of the equilibrium constant value
· The reaction quotients
· Parameters that affect the equilibrium or the rate of a reaction
· Le Chatelier's principle
· The state quantities H and G: endothermic/exothermic reactions, endergonic/exergonic reactions. Spontaneity of a reaction. The Hess'law

Biological oxidation, redox reactions and electrochemistry
· Oxidation and reduction
· Properties of oxidants/reductants
· The oxidation states of the carbon atom
· Redox reactions in organic chemistry
· Energy related to redox reactions. Electrical work and free energy change
· Galvanic cells: the Daniell's cell
· Standard reduction potentials
· The Nernst equation and the biochemical redox potentials.

Acid-base equilibrium and buffer solutions
· The dissociation constant (Kw) of water
· The concentration of H+ in pure water as a reference value for acid/base or neutral solution
· The pH scale
· Strong and weak acids and bases
· The Brønsted-Lowry theory: acids and conjugated bases
· Solutions of weak acids and bases and related equilibrium constants (Ka and Kb)
· pH of strong and weak acid/base solutions
· Polyprotic acids
· Organic acid and bases
· Composition and properties of a buffer solution
· The Henderson-Hasselback equation
· The pH of a buffer solution

Structure and reactivity of organic compounds
· Definition of functional group
· Structure, nomenclature and chemico-physical properties of organic compounds.
· The different forms of isomerism: constitutional, configurational, conformational
· Optical isomerism. Enantiomers. Configuration:D/L and R/S systems
· Glyceraldehyde as a model for D,L-configuration
· Diasteroisomers
Alkanes, halogen compounds and amines
· Reactivity of alkanes
· Reactivity of alkyl halides
· The nucleophilic substitution
· Chemical reactions of amines
Alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and thioalcohols
· The double bond and its reactivity
· Structure of conjugated dienes
· Reactions of aromatic compounds
· Chemical properties and reactivity of alcohols
· Thioalcohols
Carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids and polyfunctional compounds
· Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones: oxidation, reduction, addition and condensation reactions.
· The keto/enol tautomerism
· The aldol condensation
· Acidity and reactivity of carboxylic acids
· Carboxylic acid derivatives: ester, thioester, amides, anhydrides
· Summary of organic chemical reactions
· Dicarboxylic acids
· Unsaturated and hydroxyl carboxylic acids
· Structures, stereochemistry and reactivity of some polyfunctional compounds in the Krebs cycle

Biomolecules
Lipids
· Structure and nomenclature of fatty acids
· Triglycerides, glycerophospholipids and phosphatidyl choline
· Formation, hydrolysis and assembly of lipids
· Steroids
· Glycolipids
Carbohydrates
· Structure, stereochemistry and reactivity of monosaccharides
· Important monosaccharides: aldoses and ketoses
· Monosaccharide configuration. Epimers
· The mechanism of ring closure of a non-cyclic carbohydrate, mutarotation, anomers
· Chemical properties of monosaccharides: oxidation, reduction, formation of esters
· The glycosidic bond: O- and N-glycosides
· Structure of disaccharides
· Reducing and non-reducing sugars
· Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): structure and biological role
Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids
· Structure and properties of nucleoside and nucleotides
· Nucleic acid bases
· Nucleic acids: RNA and DNA. Chemical features and structure
· The phosphodiester bond
· The structural features of AMP, ADP and ATP, and the reactivity of the triphosphate group in ATP.
· Nucleotide coenzymes: NAD and NADH
Amino acids and proteins
· Classification and nomenclature of amino acids
· Amino acids equilibrium in aqueous solution. Amphoteric character: isoionic point. Isoelectric point
· The amide bond and its chemical properties
· Peptides and proteins
· Structure and function of proteins.
· The intramolecular forces that contribute to the three-dimensional structure of a protein
· Denaturation of proteins
· Examples of reaction mechanisms at physiological pH

Tutorials:
Tutorial sessions are planned to integrate theoretical concepts through in-class resolution of exercises on solutions, acids and bases, buffer solutions, redox reactions, and to become familiar with the nomenclature, reactivity and chemical characteristics of the main organic functional groups in biomolecules.

PHYSICS:
The lectures of medical physics will cover the following topics:
· The standard body: models, approximations, dimensional analysis and scaling.
· The composite body: fifty shades of biomaterials
· The solid body: stress, strain, moduli and other biomechanical properties
· The liquid body: flow, transport (diffusion, osmosis, ), dissipation, interfaces
· The gaseous body: gas mixtures, partial pressures, gas exchanges, diving
· The balanced body: torques and forces (gravity, friction, ), bones, tendons, muscles, joints
· The moving body: walking, sprinting, running, jumping, falling, swimming, flying
· The impacting body: landing, colliding, punching and trauma
· The thermal body: temperature, energy, heat, work, power, metabolism
· The controlled body: sensing, feedback and control
· The "bloody" body: the fluid dynamics of blood circulation
· The breathing body: the physics of the lungs and breathing
Metodi didattici
Synchronous learning (on-line and/or classroom): lectures, discussions, debates, exercises.
Asynchronous learning: audio-video based (pre-recoreded, multimedia platforms); text-based (Connect/Moodle assignments, electronic documents, discussion boards).
Materiale di riferimento
Alan Giambattista, College Physics, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2019

These books will be used extensively throughout the course. Assignments will be made available mainly through the Mc Graw-Hill Connect platform and will be an integrative part of the assessment process. Instructions to purchase the book and the Connect platform at a discounted price will be given during the course.
Moduli o unità didattiche
Chemistry and Introductory Biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA - CFU: 6
Esercitazioni: 16 ore
Lezioni: 60 ore

Medical Physic
FIS/07 - FISICA APPLICATA (A BENI CULTURALI, AMBIENTALI, BIOLOGIA E MEDICINA) - CFU: 4
Lezioni: 48 ore
Docente: Giavazzi Fabio

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