Astronomy 2

A.Y. 2018/2019
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Obiettivo del corso di Astronomia 2 e' di offrire una panoramica il piu'
possibile completa e aggiornata delle principali tematiche
dell'astrofisica contemporanea, utile allo studente per individuare gli
argomenti sui quali costruire la propria formazione specialistica. In
questo secondo modulo si affrontano argomenti di astrofisica galattica ed extagalattica, sistema solare e astrobiologia.
Expected learning outcomes
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
PARTE IV - The Milky Way

14. Stellar clusters
Kinds of clusters. Cluster dynamics. HR diagram for clusters. Stellar populations.lari.

15. The interstellar medium
Interstellar extinction. Polarization. Diffusion and absorption. Interstellar dust. Dust grain physics. Interstellar gas. Interstellar molecules. Chemistry of the interstellar medium.

16. Star formation
Gravitational collapse. Open problems. Molecular clouds and star formation. Protostars. HII regions.

17. Our own Galaxy
Differential rotation of the Galaxy. Mass distribution. Rotation curve of the Milky Way. Distribution of the Galactic gas. Optical and radio observations. The Galactic Centre. The central supermassive black hole.

PARTE V - Extragalactic astronomy and cosmology

18. Normal galaxies
Classification of galaxies. The spiral structure. Dark matter in galaxies. Measuring extragalactic distances. Galactic interactions.

19. Large scale structures and galaxy clusters
Distribution of galaxies. Redshift surveys. Dynamics of galaxy clusters. Superclusters and voids. Properties of the intracluster medium. X-ray emission and the SZ effect. Merging of galaxy clusters. Dark matter in clusters.

20. Active galaxies
Radio galaxies. Seyfert galaxies. Quasars. Black holes and active nuclei. Unified theory of active galaxies. Supermassive black holes and accretion disks. The Eddington luminosity.

21. Cosmology
Olbers' paradox and the expansion. Hubble's law. Newtonian cosmology. Cosmology and general relativity. Cosmological redshift. Friedmann's equation. Cosmological parameters. Kinds of horizons. Current estimates for cosmological parameters.

22. The early Universe
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Origin and properties of the CMB. Observations of the CMB. Primordial nucleosynthesis. Reionization. Structure formation. Large scale structures as a cosmological probe (BAO, mass function). Proofs of the existence of dark energy.

PART VI - The Solar System

23. Introduction
The motion of planets and of the Moon. Structure of the Solar System

24. The Earth-Moon system
Origin of the Earth. Dating methods. Plate tectonics. Temperature. A glimpse on the physics of the Earth's atmosphere. The magnetosphere. Tides. The Moon: its origin and structure. Open problems.

25. Inner planets
Mercury. Venus. Mars. Earth observations. Exploration. Structure and surface of terrestrial planets. Atmospheres. Satellites.

26. Outer planets
Characteristics. Inner structure and atmosphere. Rings: dynamics and properties. Satellites. Earth observations. Exploration.

27. Minor bodies in the Solar System
Pluto. Comets. Meteorites. Asteroids.

28. Astrobiology
Origin of the Solar System. Chemistry of the early Earth. Origin of life on Earth. Stability of terrestrial environment and biological evolution. Likeliness of finding life in the Solar System. Extrasolar planets. Observational prospects.
FIS/05 - ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS - University credits: 6
Lessons: 42 hours
Ask the teacher
Laboratorio di Strumentazione Spaziale, Department of physics (via Celoria 16, Milano)