Comparative anatomy

A.Y. 2018/2019
6
Max ECTS
52
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/06
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Evaluate the structure- function relationship and the evolution of Vertebrates on the basis of Evo-Devo concepts and of the relevance in human biology.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Responsible
Course syllabus
PROGRAM
General concepts on evolution of Vertebrates. General characteristics of Vertebrates, an overview on Vertebrate systematics . Concepts of environment-mediated evolution, temperature and salt homeostasis as evolutive forces. Omeothermia.

Embryonic development as a model to study Vertebrate evolution (Evo-Devo). Embryonic tissues and embryonic structures at the phylotypic stage. Vertebrata are Cristata: role of the neural crest cells.

Integument. Embryonic development. Structure and phylogeny of the skin and skin derivatives.

Digestive system. Embryonic development. Phylogeny, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and functional significance of the different tracts of the alimentary canal and its glands.

Respiratory system. Embryonic development and general phylogeny. Structure of gills and lungs in the different classes of Vertebrates.

Circulatory system. Embryonic development. Structure of the heart and vessels. Evolution of the heart and aortic arches in relation to thermoregulation and changes of the respiratory system. Outlines on the phylogeny of venous and lymphatic system. Blood. Morphology of lymphoid and myeloid organs.

Urogenital system. Embryonic development
Excretory system: functional significance of the morphology of the nephron and organization of the renal parenchyma in the various classes of Vertebrates. Outlines on the urinary tracts.
Reproductive system: microscopic anatomy of the gonads in the various classes of Vertebrates. Phylogeny and ontogeny of the genital ducts.

Musculoskeletal system. Skeletal system: embryological origin and general plan of organization of the skull, of appendicular and axial skeleton. Role of neural crest cell-derived structure for the evolution of Vertebrate cranio-facial structures. Muscular system: the evolution of muscular structures related to locomotion.

Sensory organs. Development and general plan of organization with emphasis on eye, ear and lateral line apparatus.

Regulation of body activity: the neuro-endocrine control.
Endocrine glands. Structure and function of endocrine glands.
Nervous system. Development and general plan of organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. Morphology, connections and functional significance of different parts of the central nervous system in the various classes of Vertebrates. Peripheral nervous system: spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Autonomic nervous system. Relations between the nervous system and endocrine system.


REFERENCE MATERIAL
Giavini E, Menegola E.: Manuale di Anatomia Comparata, EdiSES.
AA.VV. Anatomia Comparata (a cura di Vincenzo Stingo), EdiErmes.


PREREQUISITES AND EXAMINATION PROCEDURE
Written test with recognition of histological images as shown during the lessons


LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION
Frontal teaching; microscopy lessons


RECOMMENDED PREREQUISITES
Cytology and Histology


TEACHING LANGUAGE
Italian


PROGRAM INFORMATION
See also the specific Ariel page


WEB PAGES
See http://ariel.unimi.it/
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 44 hours
Professor: Menegola Elena

M - Z

Course syllabus
General concepts on evolution of Vertebrates. General characteristics of Vertebrates, an overview on Vertebrate systematics . Concepts of environment-mediated evolution, temperature and salt homeostasis as evolutive forces. Omeothermia.

Embryonic development as a model to study Vertebrate evolution (Evo-Devo). Embryonic tissues and embryonic structures at the phylotypic stage. Vertebrata are Cristata: role of the neural crest cells.

Integument. Embryonic development. Structure and phylogeny of the skin and skin derivatives.

Digestive system. Embryonic development. Phylogeny, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and functional significance of the different tracts of the alimentary canal and its glands.

Respiratory system. Embryonic development and general phylogeny. Structure of gills and lungs in the different classes of Vertebrates.

Circulatory system. Embryonic development. Structure of the heart and vessels. Evolution of the heart and aortic arches in relation to thermoregulation and changes of the respiratory system. Outlines on the phylogeny of venous and lymphatic system. Blood. Morphology of lymphoid and myeloid organs.

Urogenital system. Embryonic development
Excretory system: functional significance of the morphology of the nephron and organization of the renal parenchyma in the various classes of Vertebrates. Outlines on the urinary tracts.
Reproductive system: microscopic anatomy of the gonads in the various classes of Vertebrates. Phylogeny and ontogeny of the genital ducts.

Musculoskeletal system. Skeletal system: embryological origin and general plan of organization of the skull, of appendicular and axial skeleton. Role of neural crest cell-derived structure for the evolution of Vertebrate cranio-facial structures. Muscular system: the evolution of muscular structures related to locomotion.

Sensory organs. Development and general plan of organization with emphasis on eye, ear and lateral line apparatus.

Regulation of body activity: the neuro-endocrine control.
Endocrine glands. Structure and function of endocrine glands.
Nervous system. Development and general plan of organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. Morphology, connections and functional significance of different parts of the central nervous system in the various classes of Vertebrates. Peripheral nervous system: spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Autonomic nervous system. Relations between the nervous system and endocrine system.


PREREQUISITES AND EXAMINATION PROCEDURE
Written test with recognition of histological images as shown during the lessons
Esame scritto con riconoscimento dei preparati istologici illustrate durante le lezioni.


REFERENCE MATERIAL
Giavini E, Menegola E.: Manuale di Anatomia Comparata, EdiSES.
AA.VV. Anatomia Comparata (a cura di Vincenzo Stingo), EdiErmes.


LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION
Frontal teaching; microscopy lessons


RECOMMENDED PREREQUISITES
Cytology and Histology


TEACHING LANGUAGE
Italian


PROGRAM INFORMATION
See also the specific Ariel page


WEB PAGES
See Ariel
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 44 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Ask for an appointment via email
Biosciences Dept, building (torre) B, 7th floor