PROGRAM Physiology of the biological membrane Morpho/functional characteristics of cell membranes. Functional characteristics of transmembrane exchanges. The cytoplasmic environment Active and passive transport through the membrane Chemical and electrical potential across the membrane Mechanisms of transport for neutral substances, ions, water and organic compounds. Functional integration of electric and chemical messages. Cellular and molecular physiology of excitable cells The neuron The cell action potential The Hodgkin and Huxley theory Electrical signal generation and its propagation Biophysics of ion channels Metabotropic and ionotropic membrane receptor. The second messenger system Cell communication: chemical and electrical stimulation Electric and chemical Synapses Neuronal signal integration The modality of communication in the nervous system: the neuronal firing Functional principles of cellular memory: LTP and LTD The muscle cell: skeletal, smooth and cardiac The skeletal muscle The neuro-muscular junction Excitation and contraction coupling Basic mechanism of muscular contraction The Huxley hypothesis: the sliding filaments Biomechanics of the skeletal muscle: isometric and isotonic contractions The smooth muscle Cells organization and function Distribution and function of contractile proteins in the smooth muscle The peristalsis The cardiac muscle The cardiac action potentials Cardiac cell ionic current Cellular and molecular basis for cardiac autorhythmicity The pace maker current If Modulation of cardiac cell excitability External signal transduction in sensory cells Physiology of light sensitive cells in the eye Physiology of the auditory system cells The olfactory system cellular organization The gustatory system Touch and pain transducer at the cellular level Processes of reabsorption/secretion in the kidney Organization of the nephron Glomerular filtration Reabsorption and tubular secretion mechanisms
REFERENCE MATERIAL V. Taglietti, C. Casella, Principi di Fisiologia e Biofisica della cellula, ed. EDISES. E. Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, ed. Elsevier. B, Hille. Ion Channels In Excitable Membrane. Ed. Sinauer
PREREQUISITES AND EXAMINATION PROCEDURES The exam consists of a written and an oral part. The written test will be composed of 15 multiple-choice questions on general topics of the course. Each correct answer counts 2 points (no answer 0 pt, wrong answer -0.25 pt) for a total of 30. The students passing the written test (minimum grade 18/30) will be eligible to sustain the oral part in the days after the written test (no more than 4 days). The interval between the written and oral tests will depend on the number of the students enrolled.
RECOMMENDED PREREQUISITES Students are seriously recommended to pass the Mathematics and Physics exams before join this course
TEACHING METHODS Student are awarded that a constant presence during class is highly recommended. The exams are a written test. There is the possibility, on request, to have a colloquium following the written trials.