SURFACE PHYSICS - MOD 2
1) Introduction to the course, surface problem, total energy minimization for a finite, surface-terminated solid.
2) Principles for measuring reflectivity, diffraction, absorption, and decay. Understanding experimental geometries with external sources.
3) Ultra-high vacuum, mean free path calculation for low-pressure molecules, UHV production technologies and pressure measurements in UHV.
4) Surface phenomenology: surface melting, melting and non-melting surfaces.
Proton channeling experiments (van der Veen) and theoretical predictions (Tosatti)
5) Molecular beam Epitaxy, 2D growth models, monitoring growth by grazing electron diffraction (RHEED).
6) Ion scattering, SIMS and RBS, FIM, SEM, SEXAFS
7) Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy. Surface morphological investigation in real space.
8) Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy. Local spectroscopy . Examples, surface chemical waves.
9) Atomic Force Microscopy, theory and examples, other Scanning Probes
10) Quantons-matter interaction, absorption and diffusion cross sections
11) Optical theorem and experimental techniques with X-ray sources, electrons, neutrons, structural investigation methods in the reciprocal space, EXAFS
12) Surface diffusion and diffraction, kinematic approximation. Examples.
13) Surface diffraction, phase problem, Patterson method, experimental methods and experimental geometries.
14) Coherent imaging of nanostructures
15) X-ray absorption as spectroscopy of unoccupied levels, XMCD as magnetometry, sum rules, XMLD, other geometries.
16) Inner levels photoemission, chemical shifts, surface core level shifts
17) Auger Spectroscopy (AES)
18) Angle and Spin-resolved photoemission (ARPES, SP-ARPES). Three-steps model, independent electrons model, experimental geometry, matrix elements, symmetries. Surface states of Copper. Image states, two-photon photoemission. EELS and HREELS. Planare and specular scattering. Surface plasmons.
19) ARPES: manybody interpretation, surface metal-insulator transition.
20) Magnetism in materials
21) Surface magnetism, magnetic ordering at surfaces, spind and orbital magnetic moment
22) Magnons, spin deviations, measurement techniques, spin transport, Mott scattering, Kerr and XMCD effects. Measuring photoelectron spin.
23) Dynamical phenomena at surfaces, time-resolved measurements, pump-probe experiments
24) Surface phonons. Raman and Brillouin scattering.
25) Visit to the Trieste Elettra Synchrotron, and to NFFA-APE (growth, characterization, ARPES and XMCD, MOKE).
26) Visit to the Trieste Free Electron Laser (FEL) FERMI@Elettra
, and to NFFA-SPRINT (pump-probe photoemission with pulsed laser).