Nutrition, pharmacology and toxicology

A.Y. 2018/2019
6
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/14
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
To provide advanced knowledge on the pathological bases of common disease, and on pharmacological and nutritional approaches to their management.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Course syllabus
PROGRAM:

Pharmacokinetics
· Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
· Phase I and II reactions
· Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacodynamics
· Classification of drug targets and mechanisms of action
· Interaction and efficacy parameters
· Therapeutic and adverse effects
Drug development
· Preclinical and clinical studies of kinetics, efficacy and toxicity
· Pharmacovigilance
· Ethical issues in drug development
· General causes of drug failure
Dyslipidemias
· Atherosclerotic process
· Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism
· Classification of dyslipidemias and pharmacological targets
· Pharmacological management: statins, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors, PPAR-alpha agonists
· Dietary intervention: omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols, fibers, berberine, red yeast rice
Obesity
· Prevalence and classification
· Regulation of food intake
· Pharmacological management: sympathomimetics and orlistat
· Emerging targets: GLP-1, leptin, white and brown adipose tissue
· Dietary intervention: caloric restriction, fibers, omega-3, polyphenols
Diabetes
· Diagnosis and classification
· Mechanisms of glycemic control
· Pharmacological management: insulin, solfonylureas, GLP-1R agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, metformin, PPAR-gamma agonists
· Dietary intervention: low-carbohydrate diet, fibers, olive oil
Hypertension
· Determinants of arterial pressure: role of sodium, renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system
· Pharmacological management: renin inhibitors, ACE-inhibitors, AT1 receptor antagonists, loop diuretics, thiazides, K+-sparing agents, beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers
· Dietary intervention: weight loss, sodium restriction, DASH and Mediterranean diet, potassium, alcohol, cocoa flavonoids, garlic, beetroot, omega-3
Platelet aggregation and blood coagulation
· Platelets and coagulation factors
· Mechanisms of hemostasis
· Anti-aggregant drugs: acetylsalicylic acid, thienopyridines, thrombin receptor antagonists, gpIIb/3a antagonists
· Anticoagulant drugs: heparins, direct inhibitors of thrombin and Xa, warfarin
· Drug-food interactions: vitamin K, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, ginger, omega-3, vitamin E, olive oil
Gout
· Regulation of serum uricemia and gout pathogenesis
· Pharmacological management: anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, uricosurics, xantine oxidase inhibitors, uricase
· Dietary intervention: weight loss, alcohol, purine-rich foods, diary products, fructose, coffee, vitamin C
Anemias
· Red blood cell production
· Role of erythropoietin, iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid
· Classification of anemias and oral/parenteral treatment of nutritional deficiencies
· Dietary sources of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid and their bioavailability
· Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection
Heart failure
· Definition, classification, pathogenesis and prognosis
· Pharmacological management: RAAS inhibitors, diuretics, beta-blockers, digoxin
· Dietary intervention for HF prevention: control of body weight, arterial pressure and glycaemia
· Dietary intervention for HF management: preservation of body weight, nutritional deficiencies, restriction of water and sodium intake, supplementation with aminoacids, coQ10, iron, omega-3, carnitine, creatinine and vitamins
Gastroesophageal reflux and peptic ulcer
· Regulation of gastric secretion
· Role of Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory drugs
· Pharmacological management: proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, misoprostol, sucralfate and antacids
· Dietary intervention: weight loss, elimination diets, probiotics for Helicobacter pylori infection
Alteration of gastrointestinal motility
· Mechanisms of peristalsis regulation
· Classification, causes and consequences of altered GI motility
· Pharmacological management: prokinetics, laxatives, antidiarrheal, antinauseant and antiemetic agents
· Dietary intervention: elimination diets, FODMAP diet, probiotics and fibers
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
· Pathogenesis, diagnosis and classification
· Dietary intervention: weight loss, beneficial components of the Mediterranean diet, vitamin E, silybum marianum
Food-drug interactions
· Pharmacokinetic interactions
· Pharmacodynamic interactions
· Effect of meals, fibers, calcium-containing foods on drug absorption
· Enzymatic inductors and inhibitors: grapefruit, St. John's Wort, flavonoids
· Pharmacodynamic interactions: potassium- and tyramine-rich foods, licorice
Design of dietary intervention studies
· Key parameters of randomized controlled studies
· Inclusion and exclusion criteria
· Selection of intervention strategy, of the active treatment and of the control treatment
· Adherence and compliance: impact and measurement

REFERENCE MATERIAL
"Goodman & Gilman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics" Ed. McGraw-Hill

PREREQUISITES AND EXAMINATION PROCEDURES
Good knowledge of biology, anatomy, physiology, cellular and molecular pharmacology.
Oral exam; questions are aimed to verify the student's knowledge on the course's topics. In itinere tests will not be performed.

TEACHING METHODS
Lectures supported by slides

LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION
Italian

RECOMMENDED PREREQUISITES
Biochemistry of nutrition, Biology of Nutrition

PROGRAM INFORMATION
Slides will be available on the ariel website of the lecturer

WEB PAGES
Dedicated ariel page will be available soon
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Gomaraschi Monica
Professor(s)