Organic compounds are the basis for living organisms. This course will describe structure, phisico-chemical properties and reactivity of the main classes of organic compounds, with particular emphasis for those important for environment.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the chemical structure and reactivity of organic compounds. Use of fundamental techniques for identification, separation and purification of organic compounds.
Main Themes (credit n.1): the organic compounds: structure, isomerism, compact formula, functional groups. Intermolecular bonds in the organic compounds and their relationship with chemical-physical proprieties: volatility, solubility, etc. Alkanes and cycloalkanes: conformational analysis; chemical-physical proprieties; radical reactions; stability of radicals. Alkenes: structure, proprieties, geometric isomerism. Dienes and polyenes (short account). Addition reactions of alkenes: electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Radical reactions of alkenes. Alkanes and alkenes in nature: terpenes (short account). Aromatic compounds: some derivative of benzene, polycycles and heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Nomenclature and structure of aromatic compounds. Main Themes (credit n.2): alkyl halides: structure, reactivity, proprieties and ecological problems. Alcohols: structure, proprieties, acidity and redox reactions. Phenols: structure, proprieties, acidity and redox reactions. Antioxidants. Other oxygenated derivatives: quinones ethers, epoxides. Organsulphuric compounds: thiols and disulphuric derivatives. Chirality and optical activity, absolute and relative configuration. Enantiomers, diasteroisomers and racemic mixtures. Relationship between biological proprieties and optical active compounds. CFC and ozone's hole. The pesticides. Main Themes (credit n.3): aldehydes and ketones: structure, proprieties, redox and nucleophilic addition reactions. Semiacetals, acetals and hydrated derivatives of aldehydes and ketones. Some typical carbonyl addition reactions of nitrogen nucleophilic reagents. Carbohydrates: mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides: structure and Fisher projections, stereochemistry. Cyclic structure and mutarotation. Disaccharides and polysaccharides: proprieties and importance in biological system. Main Themes (credit n.4): carboxylic acids: proprieties and reactions. Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids: acid halides, esters, amides, anhydrides, carbamates, ureas. Reactions of nucleophilic displacements: esterifications and hydrolysis of esters and amides. Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids. Soaps and tensioactives. Main Themes (credit n.5): amines: structure, proprieties, alkalinity. Natural compounds containing nitrogen (short account). Aminoacids and peptide bonds. Peptides and proteins. Main Themes (credit n.6): practical experiments about extraction with solvent, purification of organic compounds by distillation, crystallization and chromatographic separation.
Suggested Books: P. Y. Bruise, Elementi di chimica organica (EdiSes)W. H. Brown, Introduzione alla Chimica Organica (EdiSes)W. H. Brown et al. Elementi di chimica organica (EdiSes)