Agricutural industries and microbiology

A.Y. 2019/2020
12
Max ECTS
112
Overall hours
SSD
AGR/15 AGR/16
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
This course provides exhaustive information on the structure, physiology, biochemistry, genetics and effects of microorganisms in natural environments, in particular their role in the biogeochemical cycles and in the associations with other microorganisms, plants and animals.This course is intended to provide the students with the current knowledge of milk constituents and their properties. On this basis, critical understanding of the chemical and physical changes that occur in dairy products before, during, and after processing will be achieved.
Expected learning outcomes
It covers some important microbial applications in Agriculture, Food and the Environment, so that the student can acquire the fundamental tools to build a better career.Scientific knowledge of principles and practices fundamental to modern dairy technology will unable students critically to evaluate quality and suitability of both raw materials and finished dairy products. Technical activity in operating dairy plants will be easily undertaken.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
Prerequisites for admission
Being familiar with cells and chemical reactions, in particular oxidation-reduction reactions.
Background knowledge in organic chemistry.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The students will be evaluated by a WRITTEN EXAMINATION of Agricultural Microbiology: multiple choice questions on the entire program and on lab lectures (2 interim examinations of 40 minutes each). Furthermore, students attending the lab will be also evaluated on the submitted individual report on the activity carried out in the laboratory.
The students will be evaluated by an ORAL EXAMINATION of Agricultural Industries: a 30-min colloquium on the entire program.
Agricultural microbiology
Course syllabus
Introduction to the course Programme and objectives. The lectures are accompanied by laboratory activities. General information on laboratory activities. Exam rules. Cell morphology, cytology and microbiological techniques. Evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archea) and with Eukarya. Bacterial morphology. Morphology, physiology, ecology and taxonomy of Fungi. Prokaryotic cell structure: wall, surface structures, cytoplasmatic membrane, ribosome, inclusions, genome. Endospore; structure and formation. Essentials of microscopy techniques and instrumentation. Biofilms. Microbial nutrition and growth. Nutritional requirements of microorganisms and metabolic options to obtain energy. Lab culture of microorganisms. Aerobic, facultative, microaerophilic, strictly anaerobic bacteria. Oxygen tolerance. Microbial growth: definition, measurements, continuous culture; environmental conditions and microbial growth (nutrients, pH, temperature, oxygen etc.). Physical and chemical antimicrobial control. Metabolism regulation Microbial genetics. Bacterial genetic elements: chromosome, plasmides and transposons. Mutation: screening and selection of mutants. Horizontal gene transfer among bacteria: transformation, conjugation, transduction. Bacteriophage: lytic and lysogenic pathways. Viroids and prions. Microbial metabolism. Energetic metabolisms. Aerobic respiration of organic compounds; oxygenases and degradation of organic compounds. Applications: acetic acid production, composting and aerobic treatment of polluted soils. Chemiolitotrophy. Anaerobic respiration. Applications: wastewater treatment, desulfurication of cultural heritage and methane production. Main fermentations and related fermenting groups. Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis and photosynthetic bacteria. Nitrogen fixation and its application. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Microbial ecology. Biogeochemical cycles and related microorganisms. Associations among microorganisms, with plants (mycorrhizae, actinorhizae and rhizobes), and with animals (rumen, intestinal tract). Criteria and methods in bacterial taxonomy. Laboratory course: basic aseptic techniques; streak-plate technique, spread and pour plating, plate counts, isolation to obtain pure cultures; optical observations of wet mount preparations. DNA extraction from pure cultures and gel electrophoresis.
Teaching methods
The teaching is given as lectures and laboratory sessions with a final written laboratory report.
Teaching Resources
Handouts on Ariel. Supplementary readings: M. T. Madigan, K. S. Bender, D. H. Buckley, W. M. Sattley, D. A. Stahl, Brock Biology of Microorganisms, Global Edition Paperback - 26 Mar 2018
Agricutural industries
Course syllabus
Introductory overview of the Italian and international dairy sector: production trends, milk supply and demand situation, trade problems and policy. Dairy chemistry and physics. Composition and structure: main factors that can affect milk composition (breed, herd, herd management and feeding, season, location). Structure and physical behaviour of milk constituents. Physical properties of milk. Lactose and microbial fermentation processes in dairy products. Milk proteins. Casein micelles, acid and rennet coagulation. Whey proteins, heat denaturation, technological interest. Lipids. Structure and behaviour of fat globules, lipolysis and fat oxidation. Minerals and bioactive constituents: technological role and nutritional impact. Dairy technology. Heat treatments of milk intended for direct consumption or destined to further processing. Membrane processing. Cheesemaking, traditional and innovative processes. Buttermaking by batch or continuous processes and using different types of cream. Dried milk products. Dairy byproducts and effluents. Quality control and fraud detection in dairy products. Italian and EU legislation in dairy sector.
Teaching methods
The teaching is given as lectures including presentation of short videos and technical documents.
Teaching Resources
Lecture notes on Ariel. Supplementary readings: P.Walstra, J.T.M. Wouters, T.J. Geurts. DAIRY Science &TECHNOLOGY Ed. Taylor & Francis (2005).
Agricultural microbiology
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Laboratories: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Agricutural industries
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 6
Field activity: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Mondays 14:00-15:00 (by email appointment)
Room 3019, 3rd floor, Via Mangiagalli 25