Applied human anatomy and morphology

A.Y. 2019/2020
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course provides knowledge on the anatomy and morphology of the human body and its organization; anatomical and topographical nomenclature, body position and movements; spatial organization of deep organs and superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them; macro- and microscopic features of body systems as they relate to organ structure and function.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire: firm knowledge of the architecture and structure of the human body; anatomical and topographical nomenclature, body position and movements; anatomy and function of the locomotor system in relation to movement; an understanding of the relationship between organ structure and function.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Course syllabus
General anatomy
The human body. Anatomical planes. Anatomical nomenclature: position and movement. Body and body cavities. Connectival, serous, neural space. Body tissues. Definition of body organs, systems, apparatus.
Integumentary system
General structure of the skin and it appendages: epidermis, dermis, hypodermis; adnexa: nails, hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, mammary glands
Locomotor system
BONE: Skeletal structure. General aspects and terminology. External configuration, architecture, structure. Classification
Morphofunctional aspects. Bone growth and remodeling. Vascularization and innervation
General aspects of bone marrow
JOINTS: General components, classification, structure. Planes and axes of movement and range of motion. Analytical study of joints: type, movement, ligaments
MUSCLES: general aspects and terminology. Classification and morphology. Architecture, structure, vascularization and innervation of skeletal muscle. Morphofunctional aspects.
General morphological aspects of the bones of the:
- Skull: neurocranium and splanchnocranium
- Axial skeleton: vertebral column and rib cage
- Upper limb: Scapular girdle; arm and forearm, hand
- Lower limb: pelvic girdle, thigh and leg, foot
Schematic illustration of the joints and muscles of body regions:
- Head: analytical study of the temporomandibular joint, mimic (general aspects) and masticatory muscles
- Trunk: overview of the spinal column and its normal curvature. General characteristics of the vertebra and the characteristics of the different groups of vertebra. Overview of the rib cage. General morphology of the ribs and morphology of the sternum
- Joints. Analytical study of the joints of the spinal column: craniovertebral, costovertebral, and sternocostal segments; ligaments of the spinal column.
- Muscles: Intrinsic muscles of the spinal column: muscles of the vertebral grooves and ventral muscles
- Neck muscles: suprahyoid and subhyoid muscles; analytical study of the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles; chest muscles: intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Respiratory mechanics. Analytical study of the pectoralis major and minor muscles, trapezius, maximus dorsi, and diaphragm
- Abdominal muscles: analytical study of the rectal, oblique abdominals, internal and external oblique abdominals, quadratus lumborum, rectal sheath, linea alba, inguinal ligament and inguinal canal
- scapulo-thoraco-humeral girdle
- scapula-humeral joint and structure of the capsular ligaments
- sternoclavicular and scapuloclavicular joints
- analysis of main muscle groups: rotator cuff
- analysis of principal movements
- humeroulnar, humeroradial, proximal radioulnar joints
- structure of the capsular ligaments
- analysis of the main muscle groups
- analysis of principal movements
- distal radioulnar joint
- radiocarpal joint
- analysis of principal movements
- hand joints
- analysis of principal movements
MUSCLES Analytical study (morphology, location, origin, insertion, action) of: deltoids, brachial biceps, coracobrachial, brachioradial, brachial triceps. Introduction to muscle of the forearm and the hand (thenar eminence muscles)
- morphology and bones of the hip joint
- structure of the capsular ligaments
- analysis of main muscle groups
- analysis of principal movements
- morphology of superficial joints and muscle groups
- femorotibial and femoropatellar joints; structure of the capsular ligaments, menisci,
- analysis of the main muscle groups
- analysis of the principal movements
- tibiotarsal joint
- analysis of the principal movements
- joints of the foot
- introduction to the muscles of the foot and its principal movements
MUSCLES Analytical study (morphology, site, origin, insertion, and action): gluteus, iliopsoas, quadriceps, sartorius, femoral biceps, triceps surae (gastrocnemius and soleus), anterior tibial.

Cardiovascular system
General organization and composition: structure of arteries, veins, capillaries
Systemic and pulmonary circulation
Heart: location, major relationships, external and internal conformation, heart valves, conduction system, vascularization, innervation. Thoracic cardiac and pericardial topography
Arteries and veins of general circulation
Analytical study (origin, major branches, region of distribution): aorta, carotids, coronary, subclavian, celiac, renal, mesenteric (upper and lower), iliac, Circle of Willis
Analytical study (origin, major branches, region of distribution): superior cava, jugular, subclavian, inferior cava, iliac, portal veins
Arteries and veins of pulmonary circulation
Lymphatic system: definition and composition. Lymphoid organs: lymph nodes, spleen, immunocompetent defense cells
Blood: composition (serum, corpuscles, hematocrit), red and white blood cells, platelets
Digestive system
General organization and composition: location and characteristics of the: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small and large intestine. Adnexa: major salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic biliary ducts, pancreas, endocrine cells of the digestive system. Peritoneum and major peritoneal formations. Anatomical aspects of absorption, portal circulation
Respiratory system
General organization and composition. Location and characteristics of the: nose, larynx, trachea, major bronchi, intrapulmonary bronchial tree, lungs, pleura. Structure of the alveolar wall, pulmonary circulation
Urinary system
General organization and composition. Location and characteristics of the: kidneys, renal calyx and pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder. Basic anatomy of glomerular filtration (glomerulus, nephron), renal circulation
Endocrine system
General organization and composition. Location and characteristics of the: thyroid, parathyroids, adrenal glands, pancreas. Neuroendocrine system: hypothalamus, hypophysis, epiphysis. Diffuse endocrine system. Definition of hormonal products and target organs.
Male genital apparatus
General organization and composition. Location and characteristics of the: testes, spermatic ducts, prostate
Female genital apparatus
General organization and composition. Location and characteristics of the: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina

Nervous system
General principles of neuroanatomy and basic terminology. General organization and subdivision of the nervous system. Synapses and neurotransmitters; conduction of nervous impulse. Neuronal chains; receptors
Sensory and effector nerves
Types of sensitivity. Neuromuscular spindles and Golgi tendon organs
Central nervous system. Subdivision and general organization. Characteristics and location of the spinal cord and encephalon. Ventricular cavities, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid. Organization of gray matter and white matter in the spinal cord and the encephalon
Spinal cord: macroscopic configuration and relationships. Internal configuration: organization and architecture of the gray and white matter. Fascia of the anterior (ventral), posterior (dorsal), and lateral cord
Brainstem: bulb, Varolio's bridge, mesencephalon. Organization. Nuclei of the cranial nerves, nuclei of the brainstem, reticular formation
Cerebellum: macroscopic configuration and relationships. Internal configuration, cerebellar cortex
Morphofunctional organization of the cerebellum
Diencephalon: conformation and limits. Hypothalamus and its connections; hypothalamo-pituitary axis and neurosecretion. Epithalamus
Thalamus: configuration and general organization; principle nuclei and connections
Telencephalon: macroscopic configuration, interhemispheric commissural formations, internal capsule. Structure of the telencephalic cortex. White matter in the telencephalon, Sensory and motor cortical areas
General sensory pathways: spino-bulbo-thalamic pathway, spino-thalamic pathway, spino-cerebellar pathway. Specific sensory pathways: general organization of the optic, acustic, and vestibular pathways
Motor pathways: pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways
Peripheral nervous system
Nerves and cerebrospinal ganglia. Definition and content of peripheral nerve fibers. Motor plaques, motor units
Spinal nerves: generalities. Anatomical organization of the plexa. Cervical plexus: phrenic nerve. Brachial plexus: ascellular, radial, median, musculocutaneous, ulnar nerves. Lumbosacral plexus: femoral, obturator, sciatic nerves. Intercostal nerves
Encephalic nerves: generalities, course and function of the trigeminal, facial, vagus nerves
Autonomous nervous system: general organization, orthosympathetic and parasympathetic
Receptors and sensory organs: definition of nervous receptors and sensory cells, free nerve endings and corpuscles, organs of vision, hearing, and the vestibular system.
Prerequisites for admission
Attendance at practical sessions is required for admission to the academic year's final exam.
Teaching methods
Lessons are conventional lectures held in the lecture hall. Attendance is compulsory. Practical sessions on the locomotor system are held in the anatomy hall. Attendance is compulsory.
Teaching Resources
Martini-Timmons-Tallitsch - Anatomia Umana - EdiSES
Barbatelli et al. - Anatomia umana. Fondamenti - Edi-Ermes
Tortora e Nielsen - Anatomia dell'uomo-Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
McKinley, O'Loughlin (Michetti) - Anatomia umana - PICCIN
Michael Schünke - Topografia e funzione dell'Apparato Locomotore - EdiSES
A.A. V.V. - PROMETHEUS (Testo Atlante di Anatomia Generale e Apparato Locomotore) - EdiSES
A.A. V.V. - PROMETHEUS - Atlante di Anatomia - EdiSES
Netter - Atlante di Anatomia Umana - Masson
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final exam is composed of a written and an oral part, both of which are compulsory. The written part (multiple choice questions) tests the student's knowledge of general anatomy, splanchnology, the locomotor and the nervous system. The oral part is given after the written exam and includes the topics covered on the course.
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 10
Practicals: 24 hours
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: Montaruli Angela