Biological and morphological sciences

A.Y. 2019/2020
6
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/13 BIO/16 BIO/17 MED/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to:
- to provide basic knowledge on the structural, functional and molecular characteristics of living organisms, in an evolutionary view
- describe the fundamental concepts of human genetics and transmission of hereditary traits, with examples of mendelian diseases
- to provide basic knowledge of the human body microscopic (histology module) and macroscopic (human anatomy module) organization
- to provide basic information about the organization of human body organs and apparatus
The course therefore aims to provide the student with the basic knowledge of human biology and genetics and, in particular, of the mechanisms that regulate intra- and inter-cellular interactions between organisms and the environment, cell reproduction, and organization of the human genome whose alteration leads to inherited diseases. Histology and human anatomy modules will give to the student the basic notions about the different tissues structure and functions and about their role in the specific functions of the different human body organs and apparatus. The student must also demonstrate that he/she has acquired the ability to present the arguments in a critical and precise manner using an appropriate scientific language
Expected learning outcomes
The student should be able to demonstrate adequate knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of cellular and molecular biology.
·The student should be able to describe the eukaryotic cell both morphologically and functionally. In particular, the students should have acquired sufficient information to describe the process of protein synthesis, the regulation of gene expression and the biological variability induced by mutations and the recombination process.
·The student should have acquired basic knowledge about the organization of the human genome and of the genetic information, and the possible alterations responsible of inherited diseases.
·The student should be able to make assumptions based on experimental data provided as biological problems.
· The student should be able to expose and explain, in a simple but rigorous manner, the biological processes that are the basis of life
·The student should be able to clearly describe the specific characteristics of the different tissues of the human body
·The student should be able to clearly and appropriately describe tissues organization into the vital organs of the human body
·The student should be able to understand the way these organs associate into complex systems with specific biological functions
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
The prerequisites consist of anatomical, histological , biological and medical genetic knowledge needed to pass the entrance test to CdS
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final written exam is structured in multiple choice questions.
The test results will be published on the ARIEL website of the course.
Biologia applicata
Course syllabus
Structure and organization of the eukaryotic cell: cellular compartmentalization; cell organelles; ribosomes; cytoskeleton; junctions; Matrix.
Structure and function of biological membranes: fluid mosaic model; transport through the membrane.
Cellular communication: mode of communication between cells.
Cell cycle and its regulation: phases of the cycle; control system; apoptosis; the cancer cell.
The reproduction of living things: asexual and sexual reproduction; mitosis, meiosis and their comparison; gametogenesis; fertilization; differentiation.
DNA replication: central dogma of biologyreplication at the molecular level; DNA damage repair.
Transcription: various types of RNA; RNA synthesis; maturation of messenger RNAs.
Translation and genetic code: genetic code and its properties; protein synthesis mechanism; post-translational modifications.
The eukaryotic genome: chromatin structure; the nucleosome; gene structure (intron-exons); control of gene expression.
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Anatomy, 10 hours in class for histology, 20 hours in class for Biology, 10 hours in class for Medical genetics) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the students on the ARIEL website. The textbook is merely recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
R. Roberti, G. Alunni Bistocchi, C. Antognelli, V. N. Talesa "Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie" Seconda Edizione Ed.: McGrawHill.
Sadava, Hillis, Heller, Berenbaum "Elementi di biologia e genetica" Ed.: Zanichelli.
Campbell, Reece " Biologia & Genetica. Ed.: Pearson.
De Leo, Ginelli, Fasano " Biologia e Genetica". Ed.: Edises.
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Body relationships with space (axes and movements)
Skeleton
Joints
Muscles and locomotion
Skin
Cardiocirculatory system
Respiratory system
Nervous system
Sensory organs and specialized sensory pathways
Digestive system
Endocrine system
Urogenital system
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Anatomy, 10 hours in class for histology, 20 hours in class for Biology, 10 hours in class for Medical genetics) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the students on the ARIEL website. The textbook is merely recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
K. Saladin. Anatomia umana. Piccin Editore
F.H. Martini et al. Anatomia umana. EdiSes
G. Ambrosi et al. Anatomia dell'uomo. EdiErmes
Istologia
Course syllabus
Basic cytology
Epithelial tissue (covering epithelia and glands)
Standard connective tissues
Specialized connective tissues (cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, blood)
Muscle
Nervous tissue
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Anatomy, 10 hours in class for histology, 20 hours in class for Biology, 10 hours in class for Medical genetics) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the students on the ARIEL website. The textbook is merely recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
S. Adamo et al. Istologia per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie. Piccin Editore
R. Di Pietro. Elementi di istologia. EdiSes
A. Calligaro et al. Citologia e istologia funzionale. EdiErmes
Genetica medica
Course syllabus
- The human genome and the normal karyotype; chromosome number abnormalities and nondisjunction at meiosis and associated diseases
- Chromosome structural abnormalities (inversions, translocations, deletions, duplications) and related pathologies
- Gene mutations (neutral, missense, non-sense, frameshift, splicing) and their effect on protein and phenotype; genetic polymorphisms (SNP, microsatellites)
- Hereditary transmission of genetic traits and Mendel's rules; dominant and recessive traits; genealogical trees
- Autosomal and sex chromosome-linked diseases and modes of inheritance (dominant and recessive); chromosome X inactivation
- Repeat sequence expansion disorders and dynamic mutations
- Gene mutation penetrance, variable expressivity, genetic heterogeneity; de novo germinal and somatic mutations and mosaicism
- Methods for genetic analysis and genetic tests
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Anatomy, 10 hours in class for histology, 20 hours in class for Biology, 10 hours in class for Medical genetics) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the students on the ARIEL website. The textbook is merely recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
Korf -Irons - Genetica e Genomica Umane - Edi-Ermes
- Neri-Genuardi - Genetica Umana e Medica - Ed Edra
- Thompson &Thompson - Genetica in Medicina - Ed Edises
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Rizzi Manuela
Biologia applicata
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Biasin Mara
Genetica medica
MED/03 - MEDICAL GENETICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Ratti Antonia
Istologia
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Rizzi Manuela