The course provides knowledge in: - the theoretical elements of the effects of the absence/excess of hormones involved in sports and physical activity and the theoretical principles underlying doping and antidoping - the analytical biochemical/biomolecular methods for monitoring the effects of physical activity on health and well-being - the biological methods and their use in genetic manipulation in sports - the biochemical-molecular aspects of the development and differentiation of skeletal muscle - the biomolecular processes underlying muscular hypertrophy and regenerative processes
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire the ability to critically analyze diverse aspects of physical activity (e.g., hormonal regulation, biochemical and biomolecular mechanisms in physical exercise) and to evaluate biochemical-molecular parameters for understanding the effects of exercise. On completing the course, students will possess a comprehensive overview of hormonal and biochemical-molecular effects of physical exercise and how to evaluate them.
Clinical biochemistry Definition and utility of biochemical/molecular biomarkers for monitoring the effects of physical activity and to individualize training programs Monitoring of the efficacy of physical activity in adults and older adults - evaluation of sarcopenia - evaluation of oxidative stress - evaluation of inflammatory stress - evaluation of satellite cells - biochemical evaluation of cardiovascular status Monitoring of the efficacy of physical activity for well-being in women - biochemical evaluation of bone remodeling and osteoporosis; female athlete triad - breast cancer and exercise Monitoring of the efficacy of physical activity in chronic debilitating illnesses - musculoskeletal diseases - inflammatory diseases Molecular biology, exercise, well-being - recombinant proteins - genetic doping - exercise pills Muscle biochemistry Musculoskeletal differentiation: cellular modification and factors involved in its regulation Muscle satellite cells: origin, characteristics, function Biochemical and metabolic characteristics of muscle fiber Organization of the skeletal muscle cell: the sarcomere, contractile, regulatory, and structural proteins Muscle adaptation to physical exercise: biochemical aspects. Factors involved in modulation of muscle mass: muscle hypertrophy. Metabolic adaptations Regeneration of skeletal muscle Endocrinology Hormones, receptors, mechanisms of action Pathophysiology of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid axis Pathophysiology of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal axis Pathophysiology of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis GH-IGF-I axis, growth hormone, and physical exercise Glucose metabolism and energy substrates Pathophysiology of adipose tissue Obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and physical exercise Bone metabolism and physical exercise
Prerequisites for admission
Previous knowledge of: - elements of human anatomy - elements of general biochemistry
Frontal lectures, small group exercises
Lecture slides will be uploaded to the Ariel portal; scientific articles will be uploaded to the Ariel portal. https://www.endotext.org Core curriculum. Endocrinologia e Metabolismo, G.Faglia, P.Beck-Peccoz, 2014 McGraw-Hill ISBN 978883863979
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written exam with multiple choice questions. The exam is composed of three sections: 16 questions on clinical biochemistry; 16 on muscle biochemistry; 16 on endocrinology. Thirty minutes are allowed for each section. Evaluation: students will demonstrate: comprehension of hormonal mechanisms, exercise-related biochemical and molecular mechanisms, and the ability to evaluate the biochemical-molecular parameters best suited for monitoring the effects of physical activity. Exam grading: 30/30 (mean of the 30/30 grade on the three exam sections). To pass the final exam, the grade for each section must be at least 18/30.