The course is divided into three modules.
Module 1: basic gymnastic exercises
- Analysis and practice of exercise groups derived from natural movements typical of humans: walking, running, jumping, turning, balancing, rolling, crawling, carrying, climbing, etc.
- Knowledge and techniques in total body exercises: joint mobility, breathing exercises, conditioning and functional adaptation
Module 2: applied gymnastic exercises
- Knowledge of pre-acrobatic floor exercises: flips, turns, spins,
- Use of small equipment: Jäger sticks, jump ropes, hoops, clubs, Baumann blocks, etc.
- Use of large equipment: plinth, buck, springboard, stall bars, wall bars, parallel bars, rings, benches, balancing board, beam, etc.
Module 3: Gymnastics methodology
- Presentation of exercises
- Direct and indirect assistance
- Experimentation of the concept of motor stimulus in relation to the quality evoked, the phase of the lesson or the motor exercise session (introduction, main, final)
Prerequisites for admission
Procedural and declarative knowledge according to the Specific Objectives of Learning and Goals, as set forth in MIUR national programs and syllabus for Physical Education and Motor and Sports Sciences.
Lessons are conducted in a workshop (integrated doing and knowing) format in which declarative and procedural knowledge are demonstrated through a methodological approach based on reflection on action and during action.
Invernizzi P.L., Dugnani S. - Didattica del Movimento Umano - Qualità utili per la salute - Vol. 1 - Carabà Universitaria, 2014
Dugnani S., Invernizzi P.L., Longo S., Mauro F. - Didattica del Movimento Umano - Vol. 2 - Qualità utili per il controllo motorio - Vol. 2 - Carabà Universitaria, 2015
Dugnani S., Invernizzi P.L., Mauro F. - L'Educazione Motoria Rinnovata: suggerimenti per le buone pratiche nella Scuola Primaria - Carabà Universitaria, 2018
Dugnani S., Invernizzi P.L. - Progettare in Educazione Fisica e nelle Scienze Motorie - Carabà Universitaria, 2014
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final exam is composed as follows:
· Practical workshops (evaluation of knowing how to; "reflection - action")
· Graphic flow chart (evaluation of knowing how to; "reflection - action")
· Written exam and/or interview (evaluation of knowledge)
1. Basic motor skills with the use of small and large equipment (3 ball juggling routine; jump rope; headstand while holding a ball between the ankles; throwing a ball; forward ball roll; circle turns on the plinth; front hip circle on the uneven bars; rope climb)
2. Total body exercises should comprise the following components:
- 3 joint mobility exercises for the spine
- 2 joint mobility exercises for the scapulohumeral girdle
- 2 joint mobility exercises for the hip
- 3 strength exercises for the upper limb muscles
- 3 strength exercises for the lower limb muscles
- 2 strength exercises for the abdominal muscles
- 2 strength exercises for the dorsal muscles
Candidates will add 3 exercises of their choice to the list.
Additional comments for the total body workshop:
- Small equipment (elastic bands, batons, sticks, rope, medicine ball, hoops, Baumann blocks, etc.)
- Transitions differing in form and intensity can be added to make the execution smoother without pauses between exercises
- Musical accompaniment can be used to enhance expressivity of execution
- Exercises should be dynamic, rhythmic, and precise in execution
- An observation point should be assigned for the instructor
FLOW CHART ILLUSTRATING THE TOTAL BODY EXERCISE ROUTINE
The candidate will prepare a flow chart (original) illustrating the routine and its components will be structured as follows:
- Frontispiece: personal data, course, subject
- List of exercises grouped by type: exercises for spinal mobility, strengthening, etc.
- Presentation of each exercise: labeled diagram and description, including the muscle groups and joints involve, type of contraction and work to be carried out during the various phases of the exercise (e.g., concentric contraction, positive work) or type of mobility (active, passive, mixed), plus any other useful details (e.g., isolated reference positions, prevention and safety during exercise, etc.)
- Title(s) of musical accompaniment
The folder (flow chart and text in A4 format, computer printout, bound) should be received by the instructor or secretary at least 7 days before the date of the practical exam
Evaluation of the practical exam and the folder
Criteria: presentation of the written document (formatting, attention to clarity , illustrations, terminology, content, execution of exercises)
WRITTEN EXAM AND/OR INTERVIEW
A written exam and/or interview will be conducted to determine the acquisition of knowledge of the topics covered on the course.
INTEGRATED WORKSHOP EXAM
The candidate may supplement the Total Body Exercise presentation with a report of oxygen equilibrium curves during 15 trial runs with data recorded for: date, time, meters run, environmental conditions, subjective perception of exercising exertion, heart rate, including graphs and personal observations. The report is part of a study conducted as a "reflection-action" task and serves to aid students in confronting the problems connected with endurance training and to determine on themselves whether they understand the concept of steady state.
Reflection-action task: 15 trials running in steady state
- Perform 15 trials (30 minutes each) of continuous, uniform running in oxygen equilibrium
- Record on a data sheet (table created by the candidate) for each trial: date and time; environmental conditions (location, type of course, atmospheric conditions, temperature, etc.), distance run (in meters); average speed (km/h), rate of perceive exertion (RPE) 30 minutes after the trial (RPE session), heart rate at rest and while running (recorded at minutes 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30), personal observations
- Build a graph illustrating heart rate during each trial
- Build a graph showing distance run
- Write personal observations and analyze the factors under study; trace the trends on the graphs for heart rate in relation to the objectives (running in steady state) and distance run and RPE
The instructor may by his/her discretion and by request of the student substitute the Total Body Exercise presentation with the integrated workshop reflection-action task and report.