Immunology and Immunopathology (3 ECTS)
Tissue response to damage- Inflammatory response and innate immunity
Acute inflammation-Vascular events. Vasodilatation with hyperaemia. Increased vascular permeability. Edema formation. Production of vascular mediators. Arachidonic acid metabolism: prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
Myeloid cells involved in inflammation and innate immunity and their functions. Macrophage subpolpulations, phagocytosis and intracellular killing mechanisms.
Inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin 1, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 6.
Chemotaxis and chemotactic factor, the family of chemokines, the adhesion molecules. The complement system.
Systemic effects of acute inflammation: leukocytosis, fever, acute phase proteins
Chronic Inflammation: general features and etiology. Histological features. Cells of chronic inflammation. Macrophages, fibroblasts
Chronic Inflammatory lesions: abscesses, ulcers, granulomas.
Recovery and tissue repair. Types of Tissue regeneration. Repair (scars and fibrosis). Fibrogenic and anti-fibrogenic cytokines. Angiogenesis. Mechanisms of Wound healing. Pathological aspects of the repair. The role of stem cells in tissue repair.
Acquired Immunity and related diseases
-Features of Innate and acquired immunity. Lymphoid cells and primary and secondary organs.
Antigen recognition, generation of receptor diversity in B and T lymphocytes; structure of antige receptors and their gene rearrangements.
Structure and functuions of MHC molecules of class I and II, antigen presentation
- Humoral immune response: B Lymphocytes: origin, characteristics and functions. Structure of antibodies. Primary and secondary antibody response. Effector mechanisms of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies.
- Cell-mediated immunity. T Lymphocytes: origin, characteristics and functions. Subpopulation of T lymphocytes: T helper, T cytotoxic and T regulatory.
-Role of stimulatory or suppressive cytokines in T lymphocyte activation. Immune check-points.
Principle of vaccination and characteristics of different vaccines. Immunopathology
Hypersensitivity reactions: Type I, immediate hypersensitivity reaction, Allergy or athopy.
Damage caused by cytotoxic antibodies. Immune complex diseases.
Delayed type hypersensitivity (tuberculin- contact DTH)
Immunological tolerance and autoimmune diseases: general features and details on selected diseases: rheumathoid arthritis, Systemic Lupus erythematosus, Type I diabetes, Myasthenia gravis, Celiac disease.
Physiopathology (3 ECTS)
Cellular damage. intrinsic and extrinsic factors for acute and chronic damage; reversible effects and cellular adaptive responses (atrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia); cellular aging. Irreversible damage. Cell death (necrosis, apoptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy)
Epidemiology. Tumor mortality and morbility. Environmental causes. Tumor classification. Functional and morphological features of benign and malignant tumors. Tumor invasiveness and metastatization. Tumor angiogenesis.
Carcinogenesis: general principles.
Genetic of tumor transformation: Protooncogenes, Oncogene and oncosuppressor genes.
Tumor caused by infectious agents ( virus or bacteria); familial and hereditary cancers.
Stadiation and diagnosis of cancer; conventional methods, histology, immunodiagnosis, liquid biopsy, monoclonal antibodies in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Tumor markers.
Immunotherapy and tumor gene therapy. Prevention and screening.
Genetic and congenital diseases with examples of monogenic diseases
Chromosomal abnormalities, Down symdrome
Autosomal dominant or recessive or etherocromosomal-related diseases. With examples like
familial hyperlipidemia, sickle cells anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia A & B, and others
Physio-pathology of cardiovascular diseases (brief introduction)
Atherosclerosis: formation, growth and development of atherosclerotic plaque; risk factors for atherosclerosis. Thrombosis, metabolic syndrome, hypertension.
The course consists of 6 ECTS (48h) of lectures given by the Professor of the Course and occasionally seminars by external experts on particular subjects. Power point presentations or short videos are usually used and are provided to the students in the Ariel site of the course. In addition, there is 1 ECTS of practical work which includes 8 h of laboratory training for each student, divided in 2 sessions. 1. histological examination by the microscope of fixed tissues or cells to identify signs of different pathologies (atherosclerosis, anemia, tumours); 2. induction of erythroid differentiation in vitro and measure of haemoglobin producing cells by benzidine staining. The remaining 8h of practical work are organized as team working or project development. Both types of practical work are under the supervision of dedicated part time tutors.
Fabio Celotti. Patologia generale e fisiopatologia, II Ed, EdiSES. 2013 under revision and with on line update
Pontieri GM Elementi di Patologia generale & Fisiopatologia generale, IV Ed Piccin 2018
Kumar V et al Robbins. Fondamenti di Patologia e Fisiopatologia IX edizione- EDRA 2013
Abbas AK. et al Le basi dell' Immunologia EDRA 2017
In addition all the slide presentation and other material given by the teachers is available from the Ariel web site of Biotechnology-K06