Histology and embriology

A.Y. 2019/2020
7
Max ECTS
92
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/17
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with: a) the basics of the scientific method and main techniques for optical and electronic microscopy; b) knowledge of the fundamental concepts underlying the structure and cellular ultrastructure of the cell with observation of cytological preparations; c) the principles underlying tissue recognition; d) knowledge of the initial stages of the embryo development.
Expected learning outcomes
The students:
a) correlate the structure and the ultrastructure of the cell as a complex of biological systems in continuous adaptation;
b) recognize histological preparations of the main human tissues in non-pathological conditions;
c) know the early stages of embryonic development.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Course syllabus
The course includes the presentation and the discussion of the following topics divided into these sections:
METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR THE MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY:
Inclusion, fixation and cutting of biological samples. Main histological and histochemical stainings.
Tools for morphological analysis.
CYTOLOGY:
General organization of the eukaryotic cell.
Plasma membrane: organization, apical, basal, and lateral specializations.
Ribosomes: morphology and functions.
Endoplasmic reticulum: morphology and functions of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Golgi apparatus: morphology and functions.
Lysosomes and peroxisomes: morphology and functions.
Mitochondria: morphology, and functions.
Nucleus: morphology and functions.
Cytoskeleton: microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules.
Cellular activities: cell division, apoptosis, vesicular traffic, secretion, endocytosis and exocytosis.
HISTOLOGY:
General organization: cells, tissues, organs, systems.
Epithelia: general characteristics, structure, classification, localization and functions. Specializations of the free surface (cilia, microvilli and stereociglia), of the lateral surface (cellular junctions), of the basal surface (basement membrane). Organization, classification and main localizations of coating epithelia, exocrine and endocrine glandular epithelia. Sensory epithelia.
Connective tissues: general characteristics, structure, classification, localization and functions.
Proper connective tissue (loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue with regular and irregular bundles). Adipose tissue.
Cartilage: general characteristics, structure, classification, localization and functions. Hyaline, elastic and fibrous cartilage.
Bone tissue: general characteristics, structure, classification, localization and functions. Ostheogenesis.
Blood: general aspects. Plasma. Morphology and function of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets. Hematopoiesis: general aspects.
Muscle tissue: general characteristics, structure, classification, localization and functions. Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue.
Nervous tissue: general characteristics, classification, localization and functions of neurons. Myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Synapses.
Neuroglia: general characteristics, structure, classification, localization and functions.
GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY:
Male gametogenesis
Female gametogenesis, ovarian and uterine cycle.
Fertilization, segmentation and implantation.
Germ layers and folding of the embryo.
Embryonic annexes: yolk sac, allantois, amnios, umbilical cord and placenta.
PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
Observation, description and microscopic recognition of epithelia, connective, muscle and nervous tissues.
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required.
Teaching methods
The program will be carried out through lectures (5 CFU) with the help of teaching material (slides and/or videos), and practical laboratory activities (2 CFU) carried out under the direct guidance of the teacher with microscopic observation of histological samples and subsequent discussion and investigation of the histological aspects observed.
Teaching Resources
Citologia ed Istologia: a scelta uno dei seguenti testi
Cytology and Histology: choose one of the following texts

· ISTOLOGIA MEDICA
Curatore/i: Nadir M. Maraldi, Carlo Tacchetti Autore/i: Saverio Cinti, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Simona Corso, Ottavio Cremona, Massimo De Felici, Roberta Di Pietro, Nicoletta Gagliano, Silvia Giordano, Nadir M. Maraldi, Carla Martinelli, Alessandro Moretta, Sergio Morini, Beatrice Nico, Maria Prat, Domenico Ruzzolo, Domenico Ribatti, Giovanni Francesco Spatola, Carlo Tacchetti
EDI ERMES - Milano 2016

· BIOLOGIA-CITOLOGIA MEDICA
Curatore/i: Nadir M. Maraldi, Carlo Tacchetti Autore/i: Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Ottavio Cremona, Ivan de Curtis, Massimo De Felici, Andrea Gallina, Nadir M. Maraldi, Gianvito Martino, Domenico Ribatti, Roberto Sitia, Simona Sivori, Carlo Tacchetti
EDI ERMES - Milano 2016

· P. ROSATI, R. COLOMBO
ISTOLOGIA
V EDIZIONE - EDI ERMES - Milano 2001.

· S. ADAMO, P. CARINCI, M. MOLINARO, G. SIRACUSA, M.
STEFANINI, E. ZIPARO
ISTOLOGIA DI V. MONESI
VII EDIZIONE - PICCIN - Padova 2018.

Embriologia generale: a scelta uno dei seguenti testi
General embryology: choose one of the following texts

· CASASCO
EMBRIOLOGIA GENERALE - LA GOLIARDICA PAVESE - Milano 1990.

· P. ROSATI et al.
EMBRIOLOGIA GENERALE DELL'UOMO- EDI ERMES - Milano 2000.

· THOMAS W. SADLER
EMBRIOLOGIA MEDICA di Langman - MASSON - Milano 2002.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of a written test and an oral discussion. Passing the written test is necessary for admission to the oral discussion. The written test (40 multiple choice questions) aims to ascertain the student's knowledge of the theoretical aspects of the program. The oral discussion, aimed at evaluating the degree of study depth, focuses on the topics covered in the course and includes the recognition of histological preparations using microscopy images. The grade obtained is the result of the average of the marks obtained for each part. No intermediate tests are planned.
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 7
Informal teaching: 32 hours
Lessons: 60 hours
Professor: Martinelli Carla
Professor(s)