Microbiology

A.Y. 2019/2020
5
Max ECTS
55
Overall hours
SSD
MED/07 MED/46
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student will:
[1] Having acquired the fundamental knowledge relating to the structural and molecular organization, metabolism and virulence factors of the main microorganisms of medical interest.
[2] Know the study methods of microorganisms by using microscopic preparations to be observed.
[3] Know the different types of culture media and their use in the procedures for the isolation and quantification of microorganisms.
[4] Know the most common methods for identifying microorganisms by biochemical tests and serological tests.
[5] Based on this knowledge, it is capable of practically carrying out bacterial isolation and determination of bacterial load.
[6] Be able to describe the control methods of microorganisms using sterilization and disinfection techniques.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will have to know:
the structural and molecular organization, metabolism, growth phase, growth conditions, and virulence factors, for the diagnosis of the main microorganisms of medical interest
the preparation techniques of preparations for bacterioscopic examination
the different culture media for the isolation and determination of the microbial load.
the most common biochemical tests and serological tests for the identification of microorganisms.

be able to practically perform bacterial isolation and bacterial load determination.
be able to prepare a colture medium or similars
know how to use sterilization and disinfection techniques to control microorganisms.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
Student must have previously acquired the basic knowledge of the biology.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is in a written form with test quiz and open questions about all the topics listed in the program. If required in particular case, there is the possibility to do oral examination. The result of examination is comunicated by e-mail message after registration on electronic register
Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica
Course syllabus
OVERVIEW ON MICROORGANISMS
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIA
THE BACTERIAL CELL
∙ Dimensions, shape and grouping
∙ Architecture of the prokaryotic cell
THE CONCEPT OF SPECIES IN BACTERIOLOGY AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA
BACTERIAL REPRODUCTION AND SPORE PRODUCTION
BACTERIAL METABOLISM
∙ Metabolic processes that generate energy (fermentation, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration)
∙ The macromolecular syntheses in particular, the synthesis of peptidoglycan
MICROBIAL GROWTH
∙ Chemical requirements necessary for growth
∙ Physical requirements that condition growth
THE PATHOGENICITY OF BACTERIA
∙ The mechanism of the pathogenic action of bacteria
∙ The toxins production
BACTERIAL GENETICS
∙ Gene structure and function
. Bacterial genetic heritage
∙ Bacterial mutations
∙ Intercellular transfer of genetic material: transformation, transduction, lysogenic conversion, conjugation
DISINFECTION AND STERILIZATION
CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA
∙ Culture media
∙ Bacterial growth in liquid media: the growth curve of a bacterial population
∙ Continuous bacterial culture
∙ Bacterial growth in solid media
∙ Techniques for bacterial isolation
∙ Storage of isolated bacteria
∙ Laboratory methods for the measurement of bacterial growth
ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS
∙ Chemotherapic agents
∙ Antibiotics
∙ Antimicrobial resistance
IMMUNITY IN BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
∙ Nonspecific immunity
∙ Antigens and antibodies
∙ The immune response (humoral and cell-mediated immunity)
∙ The in vitro antigen-antibody interaction and serological reactions
∙ Immunity from vaccination
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF BACTERIA
∙ Fresh examination
∙ Examination of preparations by fixation and staining
∙ Gram staining
∙ Ziehl-Neelsen staining
∙ Ink staining
GENERAL CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIAL DISEASES
∙ Bacteriological test
. Determination of the bacteria sensitivity to the action of antibiotics and chemotherapics
. Serological tests
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES
ANIMAL VIRUSES:
. Chemical composition and structure
CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA
VIRUS-HOST INTERACTION:
∙ Phases of the viral cycle
CULTIVATION AND TITRATION OF VIRUSES
∙ Cell cultures
∙ Identification of viral multiplication in cell cultures
∙ Titration of viruses
PATHOGENIC ACTION OF VIRUSES
THE ANTIVIRAL DEFENSES OF THE ORGANISM NOT DEPENDENT ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSE-INTERFERON PRODUCTION
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF VIROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS
∙ Demonstration of the presence of viruses in the organism
∙ Demonstration of a specific immune movement
∙ Antiviral drugs and immune prophylaxis
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MYCETES
∙ Structure of the fungal cell
∙ Fungal metabolism
∙ Reproduction method: sexual and asexual reproduction
∙ Classification of mycetes
∙ Ecology of pathogenic fungi and their geographical distribution
∙ Pathogenesis of mycoses
∙ Mechanism of the pathogenic action
∙ Opportunistic and primitive mycosis
∙ Diagnostic approach of mycosis
∙ Antifungal drugs
∙ MICETES OF MEDICAL INTEREST
∙ Yeast-like fungi
∙ Dermatophytes
∙ Aspergillus
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARASITES (PROTOZOI AND METAZOI)
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIONS
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Clinical Microbiology Exercises
Teaching Resources
-Eudes Lanciotti: Microbiologia Clinica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
-Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
-Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Scienze tecniche di medicina di laboratorio
Course syllabus
THE LABORATORY MEDICINE
∙ The analysis laboratory
∙ The microbiology laboratory
∙ Fundamentals, objectives and aims
BACTERIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS
∙ Factors that influence microbiological growth
∙ Method of microorganisms treatment and their culture
∙ Biological sample sowing techniques
∙ Culture media (classification, type and use)
∙ Staining of microorganism from agar or broth, and from biological samples
∙ Simple biochemistry test (catalase, oxidase, coagulase ...) during sample processing
THE MICOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS
∙ Factors that condition mycological growth
∙ Microorganisms treatment method and their culture
∙ Sowing techniques
∙ Culture media (classification, type and use)
∙ Staining techniques
VIROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS
∙ Identification tests
∙ General principles of microbiological diagnostics
∙ Serological tests
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Teaching Resources
-Eudes Lanciotti: Microbiologia Clinica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
-Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
-Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Sisto Francesca
Scienze tecniche di medicina di laboratorio
MED/46 - BIOTECHNOLOGY AND METHODS IN LABORATORY MEDICINE - University credits: 2
Practicals: 15 hours
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Parapini Silvia