Organic compounds: structure, properties, functional groups; carbon hybridization in organic compounds, chemical equilibria between organic compounds. Alkanes and cycloalkanes: conformational analysis; chemical-physical properties; radical halogenation reaction. Alkenes: structure, properties, geometric isomerism. Alkenes: electrophilic double bond addition reactions according to Markovnikov and anti Mark. Aromatic compounds: structure, nomenclature, benzene and aromatic electrophilic substitutions. Halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons: structure, properties SN1 and SN2 Alcohols: structure, properties, and reactivity Phenols: structure, acidity, Other oxygenated derivatives: ethers, Chirality and optical activity; absolute configuration of stereogenic centers Enantiomers and diastereoisomers; racemes. Aldehydes and ketones: structure, properties; oxidoreduction and nucleophilic addition reactions to carbonyl. Aldehydes and ketones: addition of nitrogen nucleophiles and Grignard reagents. Aldehydes and ketones: keto-enolic tautomerism Carboxylic acids: properties, acid-base reactions Carboxylic acid derivatives: esters, amides, anhydrides, acyl chlorides Acyl substitution reactions: Fisher esterification; hydrolysis of esters and amides Basic and acid hydrolysis of esters Amines: structure, properties, basicity, reactivity, imines, Amino acids; the peptide bond; peptides and proteins Sugar structure, mutual rotation phenomenon, reduction and oxidation reactions Lipids: fatty acids, glycerol, triglycerides functions and structure Saponification reaction
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge acquired during the General and Inorganic Chemistry course
Lectures, exercises and slides projection in classroom and the use of the Kahoot program on tablets or smartphones. Before each ongoing test, a simulation will be performed in the classroom through the resolution of exercises by the teacher. Laboratory experiences will take place between April and June, e.g. extraction of lavender essential oil from lavender flowers, extraction of lycopene from tomato, dosage of caffeine in energy drinks, preparation of soap, distillation of benzoic acid and vanillin.
Text book: Introduzione alla Chimica Organica di W. Brown, T. Poon, Casa Editrice EdiSES. Notes from lessons, textes and solutions of exam texts are available at http://ariel.unimi.it. Alternatively we recommend the use of any other organic chemistry text for university students
Assessment methods and Criteria
During the Organic Chemistry course, two written tests are scheduled; the first will take place halfway through the course, the second, the first week after the end of the course. Only students who have passed the first test with a mark greater than or equal to 18 can access the second test. To pass the exam, both tests must be sufficient, i.e. each passed with a mark greater than or equal to 18. The final mark will consist of the mathematics average of the two marks obtained in each ongoing test. Oral interview is not carried out. The ongoing tests are not mandatory and require registration. The typology of exam tasks consists of a variable number of exercises according to the examples shown during the classroom exercises. For those who do not pass the ongoing tests and for those who decide a priori not to participate, the exam will consist of a single written test on the dates set within each exam session. The single test will consist of a variable number of exercises on the entire program.