To provide the students with a basic knowledge of the effects induced by ionizing radiation in living matter in a wide range of complexity, from cells to tissues, organs and a whole body, their mechanisms and their measure methods..
Expected learning outcomes
1)At the end the student will have acquired the radiobiological lknowledges which are relevant in the field of radioprotection and in radiotherapy. 2) The student will be able to project radiobiological experiments with proper biological systems, effects to be studied and methods to be used. 3) The student will be able to read and understand the scientific literature to improve the knowledges on specific themes of interest. 4) Given the interdisciplinary field, the student will have acquired a proper language to communicate with professional figures of different training ( i.e. in hospital environment with biologists and doctors) to build profitable collaborations.
Introduction Interaction of radiation with matter. Energy deposition at the microscopic and track level . Radiation quantities relevant in radiobiology ( Dose, LET , microsimetric quantities) . Elements of radiation chemistry, radiation chemistry of water .
Radiation effects at the subcellular and cell level Elements of cell biology and mechanisms of cell proliferation. Radiation induced DNA damage and DNA damage repair mechanisms. Chromosome aberrations. Inactivation of cell proliferation. Theories and models for cell survival . Apoptosis Mutations . Cell neoplastic transformation . Bystander and adaptative effects.
Modification of the radiation response Cycle effects. Oxygen effect . Radiation sensitizing and protective substances. Dose fractionation and rate effects . LET effects .
Radiation effects in tissues, organs and the whole body Acute effects : cell survival in relation to tissues and organs effects . Tissues and organs radiosensitivity. Radiation syndromes and lethality. Prenatal radiation effects. Late effects : Nonstochastic effects in normal tissues and organs. Stochastic effects : radiation cancerogenesis in experimental animals and in human populations ( epidemiological data ), genetic effects.
Radiobiology in radiotherapy Cell growth in normal and tumour tissues . Dose-response curves in radiotherapy. Dose-fractionation effects, calculation of the isoeffect relationship. Oxygen effects and tumour response . Other factors modulating tumour response (size , radiosensitivity.) Tumour control probability and tolerance of normal tissues. Physical and radiobiological basis of hadron therapy for proton and C ion beams.
Radiobiology in space radiation protection (radiation fields in various missions; possible countermeasures)
Prerequisites for admission
Ionizing radiation, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions. Radiation sources. Interaction radiation_matter.Basic knowledges of general chemistry.
Interactive frontal lessons supported by projection of the material
Radiation Biophysics , E. Alpen; Biological Radiation Effects , J. Kiefer; Basic Clinical Radiobiology- Ed. G. Steel; International Reports (UNSCEAR, ICRP, IAEA)
Assessment methods and Criteria
The learning is verified during an interview lasting about 1 hour on 3 topics dealt with during the teaching, one of which (the first) chosen by the student and the rest chosen by the teacher. The following are evaluated: a) level of knowledge b) properties of the terminology used, c) demonstrated critical capacity.