Radiobiology and Radioprotection

A.Y. 2019/2020
6
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
FIS/07 MED/36 MED/50
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
- To acquire the basic principles of mechanisms underlying the biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR), of IR detectors, of dosimetric quantities and of dose measurements used in Radiotherapy and Radioprotection, of the concept of dose optimization as well as of the related italian policy and regulations (D. Lgs. 187/2000)
- to acquire knowledge regarding IR interactions with inorganic matter, with simple and complex molecular structures, with biological tissues, organs, body regions, individuals and on populations
- to know the basic mechanisms underlying Oncogenesis
- to acquire knowledge on the relationship between radiobiological concepts and historical evolution of clinical Radiation Therapy and its technological and clinical developments
- to acquire knowledge on potential risks of utilizing IR and on lessons learned from IR accidents
- to acquire knowledge necessary to inform subjects (operators, patients, population) undergoing diagnostic imaging exams or radiotherapic treatments on the risks connected with the use of radiation and on the procedures aiming at preventing unnecessary radiation exposure.
Expected learning outcomes
- To acquire knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation, methods and instruments for measuring dose in radiotherapy and radioprotection and to know the current Italian policy and regulations on the subject
- to learn the basic information on radiobiological interactions with inorganic and organic matter (molecular structures, cells and tissues, organs, body regions, individuals and populations) and to understand their application in the clinical setting
- to have insights in the relationship between radiobiological principles and technical, technological and clinical evolution of Radiation Oncology
- to be able to identify radiotherapy-induced main side effects and describe the main phases of the carcinogenesis process
- to have deep knowledge of the risks associated with the use of radiation and of the experiences related to accidents occurring using ionizing radiation
- to know and to use the radiation protection techniques and aids proper for any type of examination that involves the use of ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields
- to know the emergency management plan
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics provided at the high school.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment of learning takes place through the final exam, which verifies the acquisition of the knowledge and skills expected for the lessons of the integrated course through a written test lasting 2 hours. The test is based on 6 open-end questions, 2 questions for each module. The exam is considered passed if the student has satisfactorily answered each question and achieved a minimum score of 18 points in the written test.
The booking on the UNIMIA portal, within the dates established for each appeal, is mandatory for the examination.
Dosimetria
Course syllabus
General aspects of radiation physics with particular reference to the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and the production of X-rays.
Radiation detectors: gas, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, photographic and thermoluminescence dosimetry.
General dosimetric concepts. Sizes and units of measurement. Exposure, absorbed dose, kerma.
Dose and biological effects. Equivalent dose and effective dose.
Dosimetry in radiotherapy.
Radiation protection in the medical field: optimization of patient dose and Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL).
Teaching methods
The course is divided into a series of lectures with slide shows in Power Point. The lectures slides are uploaded to the Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
In mancanza di un testo specifico sull'argomento si fa riferimento ai testi delle presentazioni in power point utilizzate a lezione. Si possono anche consultare dal punto di vista generale i seguenti testi:
AMALDI: Fisica delle radiazioni - Boringhieri
CITTADINI: Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia - Edra S.p.A.
nonché il D. Lgs. 187/2000.
Radiobiologia e radioprotezione
Course syllabus
Radiosensitivity of normal and tumor tissues, the importance of oxygen, strategies to reduce hypoxia in the tumor tissue.
Radiotherapy: clinical indications for radiotherapy, radiotherapy techniques, equipment for external beam radiotherapy, new methods, choice of dose, fractionation, integration with surgery and chemotherapy, side effects (type, prevention, treatment), brachytherapy techniques , intraoperative radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, hadrontherapy.
Oncogenesis, mechanisms, risk perception, radiotherapy's side effects .
Effects of ionizing radiations on the genital apparatus, on the embryo and on the fetus in relation to the period of exposure. Medical exhibition of pregnant women.
General principles of radiation protection in medical exposure. Side effects.
Accidents in radiodiagnostic, radiotherapy and in the engagement of unsealed radioactive substances.
Teaching methods
The course is divided into a series of lectures with slide shows in Power Point. The lectures slides are uploaded to the Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
ORECCHIA, LUCIGNANI, TOSI: Elementi di radiobiologia clinica e radioprotezione - Archimedica Editori in Torino, 2001
Tecniche di radioprotezione
Course syllabus
Regulations and legislation on health radiation protection of the population and exposed workers.
Radioprotection techniques for the patient and the operator in the use of traditional radiology equipment
Radioprotection techniques for the patient and the operator in the use of equipment in the operating room and hemodynamics.
Radioprotection techniques for the patient and the operator on pediatric patients.
Radioprotection techniques in mammography examination.
Radioprotection techniques for the patient and the operator in the use of CT.
General principles and safety standards in Magnetic Resonance.
Radiation protection techniques for the patient and the operator in Nuclear Medicine.
Radioprotection techniques for the patient and the operator in radiotherapy.
Use of Personal Protective Equipment: PPE.
Teaching methods
The course is divided into a series of lectures with slide shows in Power Point. The lectures slides are uploaded to the Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
ORECCHIA, LUCIGNANI, TOSI: Elementi di radiobiologia clinica e radioprotezione - Archimedica Editori in Torino, 2001
La Radioprotezione nelle Attività Sanitarie: manuale informativo ad uso dei lavoratori - Regione Lombardia, 2001
Dosimetria
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Pedroli Guido
Radiobiologia e radioprotezione
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Tecniche di radioprotezione
MED/50 - APPLIED MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Carugo Eugenio