Radiology and Radiotherapy

A.Y. 2019/2020
4
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
MED/36
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Aims of the course is to provide students with a general understanding of the fundamental principles of diagnostic imaging, with particular reference to their use in the most frequent pathologies of the central nervous system, the lung, the cardio circulatory system, the liver, the pancreas , the urinary tract, the breast and gastro-enteric tract.
The course also aims to transmit the methodology of diagnostic reasoning based on diagnostic imaging results, with the description of the most appropriate diagnostic techniques in different clinical contexts.
The fundamental principles of Nuclear Medicine, Radiobiology and Radiotherapy are also described.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will have to
· describe the basic principles of ionizing radiation, mechanical waves and magnetic fields for the creation of diagnostic images.
· know the basic principles of the different equipment used in Radiodiagnostics, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy
· be able to describe the iconographic aspect of the main pathologies affecting the various organs and systems;
· Know the elements of imaging semeiotics to provide information on the nature and on the staging of lesions affecting the various organs and systems
· Know the principles of radiotherapy and the main indications of this treatment
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Course syllabus
1. Radiology:
Digital diagnostic images: matrix, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, archive and distribution. Processing of digital images.
Mechanical waves and ultrasound image formation. Doppler phenomenon. Ultrasound contrast media and harmonic imaging.
Computerized tomography: technological evolution of the equipment, reconstruction through sinograms and back projection. Hounsfield unit and window concept.
Magnetic Resonance: signal genesis, relaxation time T1 and T2, spatial encoding.
Contrast agents in radiology and MRI
2. Diseases of the torax
Flogistic lesions, Interstitial lesions, Neoplastic lesions
Radiologic evaluation of the heart and great vessels
3. Diagnostica per immagini di fegato e vie biliari
Imaging of liver lesions
X Rays
Sonography, Doppler sonography, Contrast enhanced sonography
CT
MRI ang Cholangio MR
Frequent pathologic conditions:
Benign liver lesions (Angioma, Focal Nodular Hyperlasia, Adenoma), Cystic lesions of bile ducts, HCC, Metastasis, Jaundice
4. Imaging of the pancreas
X Rays
Sonography, Doppler sonography, Contrast enhanced sonography, CT, MRI ang Cholangio MR
Congenital pancreatic anomalies, Acute and Chronic pancreatitis, Pancreatic tumors (endocrine and esocrine cell tumors)
5. Imaging of the intestinal tract
Conventional radiology and barium studies, Sonography - Transrectal sonography, CT (Entero-CT - Virtual colonoscopy, MR and EnteroMR
Frequent pathologic conditions of the GI tract
6. Imaging of the genito-urinary tract
Conventional radiology and contrast enhanced studies, Sonography - Transrectal sonography, CT and MR.
Frequent pathologic conditions of the GI tract
7.Senology
Mammography and tomosynthesis of the breast
Sonography, Doppler sonography, Contrast enhanced sonography, Elasto-sonography
Breast biopsy techniques
MRI
Frequent diseases of the breast
Asymptomatic women evaluation
Symptomatic women evaluation
Tumors of the breast
I

Nuclear Medicine
Principles of radiation physics, Nuclear Medicine equipment, radiopharmaceuticals.
Applications of conventional Nuclear Medicine (endocrine pathologies, musculoskeletal system, infectious pathology, study of renal function); Nuclear cardiology; PET in oncology; applications in neurology
Nuclear medicine therapy techniques

Radioterapia
Introduzione alla radioterapia (integrazione nell'ambito del trattamento multidisciplinare delle neoplasie. Trattamenti esclusivi e combinati, neoadiuvanti, concomitanti ed adiuvanti. Finalità curativa e palliativa).
Cenni sulla biologia del danno da radiazioni ionizzanti (interazione radiazione materia, danno alle strutture cellulari, meccanismi di amplificazione e riparazione del danno, influenza del ciclo cellulare e del grado di ipossia sul danno da radiazioni )
Effetti delle radiazioni sui diversi organi ed apparati (effetti stocastici e deterministici, rischio di secondi tumori e di tossicità sulla prole, dosi soglia e dosi sicure, concetti base di radioprotezione e livelli ammissibile per lavoratori esposti, pazienti e popolazione generale, ruolo della morte cellulare e della risposta infiammatoria negli effetti deterministici, effetti acuti e tardivi, esempi di tossicità radioindotta su cute, mucose, apparato gastrointestinale, fegato, polmone, SNC e tessuti in accrescimento).
Impiego della radioterapia nel trattamento delle più comuni patologie neoplastiche (tumore della prostata, tumore della mammella, tumori del distretto cervico-cefalico, tumori del retto, tumori del polmone, metastasi ossee).
Cenni sulle tecniche di somministrazione dei trattamenti (RT a fasci esterni, contornamento dei volumi di interesse, GTV, CTV, cenni a tecniceh speciali: IORT, IMRT, radioterapia stereotassica, brachiterapia, adroterapia)
Prerequisites for admission
Physics examination
Anatomy examination
General pathology examination
Teaching methods
The teacher uses frontal lectures on the different items described in the outline. At the end of each frontal lesson some time is dedicated to questions by the students to promote a better knowledge of difficult aspects of the lesson.
Teaching Resources
Diagnostica per Immagini e Radioterapia
Cittadini, Cittadini, Sardanelli
Ecig , Edizione 2015

Manuale di Diagnostica per Immagini
Torricelli, Mignani, Zompatori
Società Editrice Esculapio 2016Diagnostic nuclear medicine and radionuclide therapy
Società Editrice Esculapio 2016
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral examination on the items described during classes
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 48 hours