Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Radiation Therapy

A.Y. 2019/2020
4
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
MED/36
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
1. To be familiar with the following topics: methods of measuring diagnostic performance; principles of radiation protection for patients and operators; physical and technical bases of radiological and nuclear imaging; indications and contraindications to imaging tests also considering cost-effectiveness; interventional radiology; interpretation of reports and communication to the patient; principles of radiobiology; radiotherapy techniques; notes on systematic radiotherapy.
2. To knowing how the prevalence of disease and, therefore, the selection of the requesting doctors, influences the reliability of radiological and nuclear reports.
3. To Know the principles of risk/benefit ratio in the use of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes.
4. To know the principles of image formation and be able to explain them to the patient (radiographic and radioscopic techniques, computed tomography, ultrasound, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, planar and tomographic scintigraphy, positron emission tomography).
5. To know the general indications and contraindications to diagnostic imaging tests in order to define the sequential and synergistic use of imaging techniques.
6. To know the basic regulations on radiation protection of patients and operators in the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation, including the units of measurement used in this context.
7. To know the principles and indications that regulate the therapeutic use of ionizing radiation, with particular reference to the most frequent forms of cancer (breast, head and neck, uterus, bladder, lung).
8. To know the general principles and indications of metabolic radiotherapy.
Expected learning outcomes
1. To be able to understand the meaning of diagnostic performance measures.
2. To be able to apply the principles of radiation protection to patients, health professionals, family members and caregivers.
3. To be able to communicate to patients and family members and caregivers the technical principles of diagnostic investigations, the diagnostic content of the reports and the recommended therapies.
4. To be able to communicate to patients and family members and caregivers the technical principles of interventional radiology and radiotherapy procedures, including metabolic radiotherapy.
5. To be able to explain indications and contraindications to diagnostic imaging tests, major interventional radiology procedures and radiotherapy, including metabolic radiotherapy.
5. To be able, by evaluating one or more images of an investigation, to recognize with which technique they have been obtained and to which body region they refer, recognizing the anatomical elements, describing possible pathological findings and providing diagnostic hypotheses.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea: Policlinico

Responsible
Course syllabus
Radiology
Units of dose measurement for ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. Physical and technical bases of digital imaging for conventional radiological techniques, computed tomography and tomosynthesis, ultrasound techniques (including Doppler), angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone densitometry. Contrast media in conventional radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and ultrasound and their indications and contraindications. Indications and contraindications for imaging obtained with the techniques listed above in order to define the sequential and synergistic use of imaging in the main clinical conditions. Role of interventional radiology from imaging-guided biopsies to endovascular and oncological treatments. Interpretation of reports and communication to the patient.

Nuclear Medicine
Physical and technical bases of the formation of digital images for planar and tomographic scintigraphy and for positron emission tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals and their clinical use. Specific aspects of radiation protection in a nuclear-medical environment. Applications of conventional Nuclear Medicine (endocrine diseases, musculoskeletal system, infectious diseases, study of renal function); Nuclear cardiology; PET in oncology; applications in neurology. Nuclear medicine therapy techniques.

Radiation Therapy
Radiotherapy: history and technological development. Principles of Radiobiology. Principles of Radiotherapy: external beam, intraoperative, intensity-modulated, stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery, brachytherapy, Hadrotherapy, Image-guided. Radical and palliative Radiotherapy, interaction with other treatment modalities (pre-operative and post-operative, in combination with chemotherapy/ hormonetherapy/target therapy/immunotherapy etc.). Radiotherapy side effects: classification, prevention and treatment. Management of prostate, breast, head-neck, lung and other solid and haematological cancers with Radiotherapy.
Prerequisites for admission
Human anatomy, medical physics
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons supported by Power-Point presentations, available on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
Radiology: Sardanelli F, Di Leo G. Biostatistics for radiologists. Springer 2009; Cittadini G, Cittadini G, Sardanelli F. Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia. EDRA 2015
Nuclear Medicine: Cittadini G, Cittadini G, Sardanelli F. Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia. EDRA 2015.
Radiation Therapy: Perez & Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology; 6° ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2013
Handbook of Evidence-Based Radiation Oncology Springer 2018 Editors: M.D. Hansen, Eric K. M.D. Roach, Mack, III
Assessment methods and Criteria
Three oral interviews, one for each section (radiology, nuclear medicine, radiation therapy). Each interview will be rated by each teacher in 30ths; a global evaluation in 30ths will be obtained taking into account the relative weight of each section (radiology 50%; nuclear medicine 25%, radiation therapy 25%). To pass the examination, the candidate must obtain at least 18/30 for each of the sections. Multiple-choice tests can be used only in the case of a very high number of candidates.
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 48 hours

Linea: San Donato

Responsible
Course syllabus
Radiology
Units of dose measurement for ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. Physical and technical bases of digital imaging for conventional radiological techniques, computed tomography and tomosynthesis, ultrasound techniques (including Doppler), angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone densitometry. Contrast media in conventional radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and ultrasound and their indications and contraindications. Indications and contraindications for imaging obtained with the techniques listed above in order to define the sequential and synergistic use of imaging in the main clinical conditions. Role of interventional radiology from imaging-guided biopsies to endovascular and oncological treatments. Interpretation of reports and communication to the patient.

Nuclear Medicine
Physical and technical bases of the formation of digital images for planar and tomographic scintigraphy and for positron emission tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals and their clinical use. Specific aspects of radiation protection in a nuclear-medical environment. Applications of conventional Nuclear Medicine (endocrine diseases, musculoskeletal system, infectious diseases, study of renal function); Nuclear cardiology; PET in oncology; applications in neurology. Nuclear medicine therapy techniques.

Radiation Therapy
Radiotherapy: history and technological development. Principles of Radiobiology. Principles of Radiotherapy: external beam, intraoperative, intensity-modulated, stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery, brachytherapy, Hadrotherapy, Image-guided. Radical and palliative Radiotherapy, interaction with other treatment modalities (pre-operative and post-operative, in combination with chemotherapy/ hormonetherapy/target therapy/immunotherapy etc.). Radiotherapy side effects: classification, prevention and treatment. Management of prostate, breast, head-neck, lung and other solid and haematological cancers with Radiotherapy.
Prerequisites for admission
Human anatomy, medical physics
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons supported by Power-Point presentations, available on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
Radiology: Sardanelli F, Di Leo G. Biostatistics for radiologists. Springer 2009; Cittadini G, Cittadini G, Sardanelli F. Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia. EDRA 2015
Nuclear Medicine: Cittadini G, Cittadini G, Sardanelli F. Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia. EDRA 2015.
Radiation Therapy: Perez & Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology; 6° ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2013
Handbook of Evidence-Based Radiation Oncology Springer 2018 Editors: M.D. Hansen, Eric K. M.D. Roach, Mack, III
Assessment methods and Criteria
Three oral interviews, one for each section (radiology, nuclear medicine, radiation therapy). Each interview will be rated by each teacher in 30ths; a global evaluation in 30ths will be obtained taking into account the relative weight of each section (radiology 50%; nuclear medicine 25%, radiation therapy 25%). To pass the examination, the candidate must obtain at least 18/30 for each of the sections. Multiple-choice tests can be used only in the case of a very high number of candidates.
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 48 hours

Linea: San Giuseppe

Responsible
Course syllabus
Radiology
Units of dose measurement for ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. Physical and technical bases of digital imaging for conventional radiological techniques, computed tomography and tomosynthesis, ultrasound techniques (including Doppler), angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone densitometry. Contrast media in conventional radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and ultrasound and their indications and contraindications. Indications and contraindications for imaging obtained with the techniques listed above in order to define the sequential and synergistic use of imaging in the main clinical conditions. Role of interventional radiology from imaging-guided biopsies to endovascular and oncological treatments. Interpretation of reports and communication to the patient.

Nuclear Medicine
Physical and technical bases of the formation of digital images for planar and tomographic scintigraphy and for positron emission tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals and their clinical use. Specific aspects of radiation protection in a nuclear-medical environment. Applications of conventional Nuclear Medicine (endocrine diseases, musculoskeletal system, infectious diseases, study of renal function); Nuclear cardiology; PET in oncology; applications in neurology. Nuclear medicine therapy techniques.

Radiation Therapy
Radiotherapy: history and technological development. Principles of Radiobiology. Principles of Radiotherapy: external beam, intraoperative, intensity-modulated, stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery, brachytherapy, Hadrotherapy, Image-guided. Radical and palliative Radiotherapy, interaction with other treatment modalities (pre-operative and post-operative, in combination with chemotherapy/ hormonetherapy/target therapy/immunotherapy etc.). Radiotherapy side effects: classification, prevention and treatment. Management of prostate, breast, head-neck, lung and other solid and haematological cancers with Radiotherapy.
Prerequisites for admission
Human anatomy, medical physics
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons supported by Power-Point presentations, available on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
Radiology: Sardanelli F, Di Leo G. Biostatistics for radiologists. Springer 2009; Cittadini G, Cittadini G, Sardanelli F. Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia. EDRA 2015
Nuclear Medicine: Cittadini G, Cittadini G, Sardanelli F. Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia. EDRA 2015.
Radiation Therapy: Perez & Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology; 6° ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2013
Handbook of Evidence-Based Radiation Oncology Springer 2018 Editors: M.D. Hansen, Eric K. M.D. Roach, Mack, III
Assessment methods and Criteria
Three oral interviews, one for each section (radiology, nuclear medicine, radiation therapy). Each interview will be rated by each teacher in 30ths; a global evaluation in 30ths will be obtained taking into account the relative weight of each section (radiology 50%; nuclear medicine 25%, radiation therapy 25%). To pass the examination, the candidate must obtain at least 18/30 for each of the sections. Multiple-choice tests can be used only in the case of a very high number of candidates.
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
To be defined after emailing to francesco.sardanelli@unimi.it
Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy