Research methods

A.Y. 2019/2020
10
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/11 ING-INF/05 M-FIL/03 MED/04 SECS-S/02
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The purpose of the course is to teach students about:
- basic statistical and epidemiological knowledge necessary to understand and deal with issues related to the organization, research and teaching in the field of health sciences, diagnostic techniques.
- Acquire historical-medical knowledge and skills in the field of bioethics and the history of bioethics, as well as aspects of teaching in the health sector deriving from the history of medical sciences and technical sciences applied to health professions.
Expected learning outcomes
- Use and apply IT, epidemiological and statistical methods and tools for:
- Plan and carry out applied research in the field of technical health disciplines
- Provide teaching and training in the field of technical health disciplines
- Understanding the competences related to the study of human behavior in its moral, ethical-social, political, communication ethics dimension. Understand the elaborations on the relationship between man and the environment and reflect on the ethical consequences that derive from the development of the sciences.
- Analyze the set of scientific fields and scientific-disciplinary skills related to the design and implementation of information processing systems, as well as to their management and use in various application contexts. This includes the theoretical foundations, the methods and the technologies used to produce technically valid projects, from the point of view of both the adequacy of the proposed solutions and the possibility of technical realization of both economic convenience and organizational effectiveness.
- Analyze the biological functions, biochemical and evolutionary characteristics of nucleic acids, and the biological functions they perform in all organisms.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Prerequisites for admission
It is required to pass the exams of the computer science and statistics and epidemiology courses
Assessment methods and Criteria
The profit exam will consist of several modules.
A written test consisting of multiple choice questions will be proposed with the addition of some open questions, including the analysis, from a legal and moral point of view, of a practical case.
A group work led by the teacher on the critical analysis of articles in the scientific literature will be evaluated with the reworking of the content in slides and the oral presentation of the paper.
Furthermore, an oral integrative test will be carried out for the molecular biology module.
Biologia molecolare
Course syllabus
- Introduction to the structure and formation of life's macromolecules and to cellular bioenergetics
- Structure and function of proteins
- From DNA structure to genes, genomes and chromatin
- Conservation of DNA: replication and mechanisms of DNA repair
- Production of proteins: from genes' transcription t protein synthesis
- Visualization of proteins and DNA sequencing
- Pathological implications
Teaching methods
The teachings will include lectures with discussion of case studies and group work led by the teacher.
Teaching Resources
- Biologia Molecolare della Cellula di Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis
Sistemi di elaborazione delle informazioni
Course syllabus
1) Introduction to the procedures based on hypothesis testing for quantitative or interval variables
2) Description of the sample using the sample mean and the sample variance
3) Description of the sample through the distribution and calculation of percentiles
4) Hypothesis test for the assessment of differences between groups: F-test
5) Homoscedasticity test
6) Hypothesis test for the evaluation of the differences between two groups: t-test for unpaired data
7) Use of the t-test to isolate differences between groups in multiple comparison problems
8) Hypothesis test for repeated measures: t-test for paired data
9) Hypothesis test based on the rank sum: the Mann-Whitney test
10) Introduction to the procedures based on the hypothesis test for two mutually exclusive nominal variables
11) Description of the sample by the frequency of the two categories
12) Construction of the contingency table
13) Hypothesis test to evaluate the differences between groups: χ2 tests
14) Use of the χ2 test to isolate differences between groups in multiple comparison problems
15) Hypothesis test for repeated measures: McNemar test
Teaching methods
The teachings will include lectures with discussion of case studies and group work led by the teacher.
Teaching Resources
- Slides of the lessons and exercises will be distributed during the course.
- S.A. Glantz, Primer on Bio-Statistics, McGraw-Hill. 1997.
- Microsfot Excel Tutorial, Microsoft.
Patologia generale
Course syllabus
Natural immunity response
- Natural immunity cells
- Cell modifications during the response of natural immunity: Cellular activation (prr, nfkb and its adjustment);
Macrophage activation (m1, m2)
- Vascular changes during natural immunity: Vasodilation; Increased permeability
- Leucocitary recruitment: Membership (molecules involved)
ChemotaxIs
- Mediators
- Chronic inflammatory response
- Adenosine; Functions of adenosine
Tumors
- Benign tumor and malignant tumor; Genes involved in the genesis of cancer; Molecular bases of oncology;
Characteristics of the cancer cell: neoplastic progression; Angiogenesis; TranscriptIon Factor hypoxia
inducible factor 1: adjustment
- Techniques described: Cell cultures; Western blot, qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein
Teaching methods
The teachings will include lectures with discussion of case studies and group work led by the teacher.
Teaching Resources
Pontieri, Elementi di patologia generale. Per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie. Piccin, 2018
Rubin, Reisner, Rizzuto, Ausoni, Patologia generale: l'essenziale. Piccin 2015
Cairo, Recalcati, Tacchini, Quick review: patologia. Edises 2011
Filosofia morale
Course syllabus
Definition of "ethics"; Ethical theories; Moral codes and legal codes; Principles of medical ethics; Doctor-patient relationship; Relations with colleagues; Research Integrity and ethical committees; The argumention in ethics; What it means to do the right thing; Tragic choices and the concept of lesser evil; Right to health; Informed consent (details); Medical liability; Defensive medicine; Distribution of resources.
Teaching methods
The teachings will include lectures with discussion of case studies and group work led by the teacher.
Teaching Resources
Del Bò, Etica del turismo, Carocci, 2017, chaper 2 only, more the material available online (www.ariel.unimi.it), that will be indicated at the first lesson
Statistica per la ricerca sperimentale e tecnologica
Course syllabus
- Types of epidemiological studies
- Study validity and precision
- Measure of disease occurrence: prevalence, risk, incidence rate, odds
- Measure of association/effect: relative (causality) and absolute (impact) measures
- Clinical epidemiology. Diagnosis: sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ROC curve
- The cohort study
- The case-control study
- Practical: reading of two articles on cohort and case-control studies
Teaching methods
The teachings will include lectures with discussion of case studies and group work led by the teacher.
Teaching Resources
- Consonni D, Bertazzi PA. Health significance and statistical uncertainty. The value of P-value. Med Lav 2017;108(5):327-331
- Oddone E, Ferrante D, Cena T, Tùnesi S, Magnani P. Mortality in asbestos cement workers in Pavia, Italy: A cohort study. Am J Ind Med 2017;60:852-866
- Consonni D, De Matteis S, Pesatori AC, Cattaneo A, Cavallo DM, Lubin JH, Tucker M, Bertazzi PA, Caporaso NE, Wacholder S, Landi MT. Increased lung cancer risk among bricklayers in an Italian population-based case-control study. Am J Ind Med 2012;55:423-428
Biologia molecolare
BIO/11 - MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Pasini Diego
Filosofia morale
M-FIL/03 - MORAL PHILOSOPHY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Poggi Francesca
Patologia generale
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Tacchini Lorenza
Sistemi di elaborazione delle informazioni
ING-INF/05 - INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEMS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Porta Alberto
Statistica per la ricerca sperimentale e tecnologica
SECS-S/02 - STATISTICS FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Consonni Dario