Aim of the course is to provide the fundamental knowledge to understand the basic principles of toxicology through: - the characterization of toxicity manifestations and molecular mechanisms - the scientific basis of experimental toxicology - the analysis of the adverse effects of xenobiotics and drugs on organ - the analysis of the criteria for evaluating and extrapolating toxicity data to humans
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire the ability to critically analyze and discuss, with a coherent language, the general pathways triggered by xenobiotics and drugs to alter organ physiology, the mechanisms involved and the general rules that define their toxicity.
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TOXICOLOGY · Principles of Toxicology: the concept of risk and dose, from molecular mechanism to the rules passing by risk assessment, type of toxicants, dose-response curves and relevance in toxicity, molecule-target relationship and related effects, reversible and irreversible, acute, subacute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, the different factors that influence toxicity · Mechanisms of Toxicity: oxidative stress, mitochondrial toxicity, calcium homeostasis, molecular mechanism of protection and repair · Toxicokinetics: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of toxic substances · NON-ORGAN-DIRECTED TOXICITY · Developmental toxicology: teratogenesis, developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) · Genetic toxicology · Carcinogenesis TARGET ORGAN TOXICITY · Toxic response of the reproductive system ·Toxic responses of the respiratory system · Toxic responses of the immune system · Toxic responses of the Nervous System · Toxic responses of the kidney · Toxic responses of the liver · Toxic responses of the skin RISK ASSESSMENT ·OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals · In vitro methods and alternative approaches applied in toxicology · Risk assessment
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of basic human anatomy and principles of biology
The course is based on both lessons and the use of a web platform and multiple choice questions, to actively discuss on the content of each general chapter.
· C.L. Galli, E.Corsini, M. Marinovich. "Tossicologia ", Ed. Piccin, Padova (2004) · Casarett e Doull's Tossicologia, i fondamenti dell'azione delle sostanze tossiche, Curtis D Klaassen, Ed. EMSI, 7 edizione · Casarett e Doull's Toxicology. The basic science of poisons. Curtis D Klaassen, Ed. McGraw Hill, 7th Edition Slides and supplementary material will be loaded on the web platform Ariel Unimi (https://ariel.unimi.it)
Assessment methods and Criteria
Aim of the course is to provide basic knowledge on the principles of toxicology through the characterization of the main mechanisms of toxicity at both cellular and organ level. Acquisition of these competences will be evaluated by oral examination on any topic of the program.