Viticultural and enological engineering

A.Y. 2019/2020
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Unit 1: To know the principal plant' law and standard; to acquire criteria for the dimension of plants and machineries for oenology; to know the main oenological machines; to acquire analysis methodology for complex and simple plants.
Unit 2: The student will be able to get a high level of knowledge about the main notions of agricultural mechanics, with detailed information on the machinery used and the mechanized tasks carried out in vineyards, including several theoretical and practical applications concerning the correct coupling tractor-implement. The safety and the comfort relevant to the use of machinery in vineyards are also suitably emphasized.
Expected learning outcomes
Unit 1: Acquisition of linguistic and technical terms competences. To design and manage productive system and complex processes for the wineries; to make economical and functional analysis of technical alternative solutions; to run the production in winery to obtain optimum conditions.
Unit 2: The student acquires the ability for structuring and dimensioning (if not yet existing) or for verifying the congruity (if already working) of the winery machinery, considering the extension, the breeding techniques, the pedo-climatic conditions and the main agronomic goals.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Course syllabus
Unit 1
1. Design the elements of a winery, based on technical-economic analysis of the plants: fixed costs, variables, the profitability diagram. Perform a preliminary study of the winery: identification of the objectives, analysis of the process cycle, sizing of machine performance, building elements of the winery, study of the lay-out, operating principles, organization of a plant.
2. Functional diagrams of the main oenological machines. The correct sizing of storage capacity.
3. Electricity in the winery: references to the main electrotechnical laws, transformers, electric motors, electrical safety, electricity pricing.
4. Refrigeration systems: purpose of refrigeration, inverted Carnot cycle, cooling efficiency, refrigerants, refrigeration cycle, system components (compressors, condensers, expansion systems, evaporators).
5. The setup of temperature and humidity in the winery: aims, the thermal balance of a conditioned room, the Mollier diagram (description, the transformations of the humid air), plant components.
6. Oenological pumps: centrifugal and volumetric pumps. Characteristic curves, selection criteria, regulation, pumps in series and in parallel.

Unit 2
1. Introduction (0.25 ECTS): usage methods of machinery in viticulture, in Italy and in the countries in which the viticulture is diffused.
2. Elements of agricultural mechanics (0.25 ECTS): mechanics applied to agricultural machinery. Kinematics: linear and angular velocity, radial and tangential acceleration. Dynamics: forces (friction, tension, centrifugal force), work, torque, power. Efficiency concept. Transmission components: gears, belt and pulley drives. Friction clutches.
3. Tractor (1.5 ECTS): Otto and Diesel cycle engines and related devices and systems to reduce polluting emissions. Cooling and lubrication. Filtering of combustion air. Bench tests of diesel engines for agricultural use, performance curves. Transmission: mechanical gearbox, powershift, CVT and related efficiency typical values. Traction means: tyres, steel and rubber tracks. Traction and rolling resistance coefficients.
4. Tractor-implements coupling (1 ECTS): power take-off and its methods of use; hitch and relevant homologation standards; hydraulic lift and its methods of use; hydraulic intakes. Tractor global efficiency (rolling resistance, transmission, PTO, hydraulic system and slippage efficiency).
5. Safety and wellness in viticulture (0.5 ECTS): narrow-track tractors and stability issues (characteristics, standards, tests). Noise and vibrations (characteristics, standards, tests). Joints and cardan shafts and their protection.
6. Viticulture implements (1.5 ECTS): row management: sprayers (methods of use, functional and setting-up periodical checks, maintenance and calibration; operator's protection in pesticide treatments); pruners, toppers, leaf strippers, etc. Inter-row management: rotary hoes, diggers, centrifugal fertilizer spreaders, manure spreaders, flail mower, etc. Grape harvesting: manual and mechanized solutions (grape harvesters: types and working capacity).
7. Practise (1 ECTS): technical visits to manufacturers of tractors and implements used in viticulture; educational visits to wine farms, with testing and recording of data to be processed through numerical applications.
Prerequisites for admission
Unit 1 - The Unit 1 requires good physical and technological knowledge to allow the student to focus on the crucial aspects of the design phases of a system for oenological productions. Basic economic knowledge is important to understand the main indicators used to evaluate the correct sizing of the plants.

Unit 2 - A basic knowledge of the most common agricultural self-propelled machinery and implements used in viticulture is required, as well as a good theoretical and practical acquisition of the most frequently adopted cultivation techniques for the grape production.
Teaching methods
U.D. 1 - The Unit 1 includes 5 CFU of classroom teaching. During the lectures theoretical lessons and numerical simulations are presented to facilitate the acquisition of the expected expertise through practical case studies.

U.D. 2 - The Unit 2 is structured as follows:
- Classroom lessons: 4 CFU
- Classroom practise: 0.5 CFU
- Field practise: 1.5 CFU
Teaching Resources
Unit 1
1. Slides and Lecture notes.
2. G. Nardin, A. Gaudio, G. Antonel, P. Simeoni, Impiantistica enologica, Edagricole
3. Pietro de Vita, Corso di Meccanica Enologica, Hoepli
4. R.P. Singh, D.R. Heldman, Principi di tecnologia alimentare, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Unit 2
- G. Pellizzi (1996) - Mechanics and agricultural mechanization - Edagricole, Bologna;
- P. Biondi (1999) - Agricultural Mechanics - UTET, Turin;
- Official lecture notes and other material useful for exam preparation, available on the websites:
Assessment methods and Criteria
Unit 1 - The exam includes both a written and an oral test; it is necessary to pass the written test to access the oral one.
Written exam: both numerical sizing exercises (4 or 5 exercises) and theoretical "open" questions (2 or 3 questions) are proposed. Passing the written test (minimum threshold vote 16/30) gives access to the oral exam.
Oral exam: during the lessons the basic elements for the design of a winery project are provided. The students, individually or divided into work groups, have to present, during the oral examination, a project including all the design phases analyzed during the course. The project is evaluated with a score from 1 to 3 points, which are added to the score of the written test.

Unit 2 - The exam consists of a written and a subsequent oral parts, both to be carried out in each single session. Access to the oral part is only possible with an assessment that is not clearly negative in written one.
The written test, to be carried out in 1.5 hours, consists of 4 exercises:
- the first two require the dimensioning of a tractor and/or an implement, in the execution of specific cultivation tasks, starting from the provided data;
- the next two consist of the description of broad topics concerning the program.
The oral exam consists of the preliminary discussion of the written and in the possible coming through of one or more topics related to the entire program.
An on-going test is foreseen (proposed at about half course), consisting of 26 closed-end questions and a description of a broad topic, included in those already presented during the course. The students who obtain a positive evaluation in the on-going test may carry out a shortened written test in the subsequent exam.
Design of the cellar
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Beghi Roberto
mechanization of the vineyard
Field activity: 16 hours
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 28 hours
Professor: Pessina Domenico
by appointment only
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - via Celoria 2, Milano
by appointment only (preferably defined via e-mail)
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali - via Celoria, 2 - 20133 Milano