Animal anatomy and genetics

A.Y. 2020/2021
8
Max ECTS
76
Overall hours
SSD
AGR/17 VET/01
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course supplies basics of vertebrate biology, and an
introduction to the structural organization and
physiological mechanisms of domestic animals. It has the
aim to provide basic acquaintance and specific knowledge,
necessary to the studies of animal nutrition and animal
production. The course provides also knowledge about the
basic principles of genetics and their applications to farm
animal species.
Expected learning outcomes
Basic acquaintance and specific knowledge of structure
and function of domestic animals, with emphasis on
physiological systems of importance to animal nutrition
and animal production. Ability of comparing the anatomy
and the physiology of different mammals. Skills in
biological and technical language necessary to describe
physiological processes. Knowledge of the hereditary
transmission of qualitative and quantitative traits in farm
animal species.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Anatomy Part (Prof. Gandolfi)
Animal Genetics Part (Prof. Parma)
Asynchronous lectures will be made available (videos consisting of slides with audio commentary), organized to cover the topics of each lesson of the course. The recorded lectures will be made available to students on the ARIEL teaching platform for the entire semester. Furthermore, synchronous meetings with the students will be organized periodically, using the Microsoft Teams platform, in order to provide clarifications and insights on teaching topics and answer students' questions.
Practical classes will be arranged through a specific on-line platform with groups of students
Exams will be taken online in the same way as those taken in person.
Course syllabus
Anatomy Part (Prof. Gandolfi)
Basic notions on animal tissues (types and functions of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues).
Locomotor apparatus: Structure and physiology of the bone. Anatomy and physiology of the muscle fiber.
Circulatory system: Anatomy: heart, arteries, veins and capillaries. Physiology: myocardium, cardiac cycle, regulation of cardiovascular functions. Figured elements of blood. Plasma and serum. Hematopoiesis, hemostasis and coagulation. Lymph and lymphatic pathways.
Respiratory system: Anatomy: respiratory tract, lungs, pleurae. Physiology: respiratory cycle, transport of gases, nervous control of breath.
Digestive system: Anatomy: oral cavity, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach in monogastric, stomach in polygastric, intestine, pancreas and liver. Physiology: food chewing, salivary secretion, swallowing, motility of the stomach and prestomachs, rumen fermentation, gastric, pancreatic and enteric juice, bile, intestinal motility, digestion and absorption.
Urinary system: Anatomy: kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra, renal circulation. Physiology: glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion, endocrine regulation, renal hormones, water-saline homeostasis, urine composition.
Female reproductive system: Anatomy: ovary, tube, uterus. Physiology: oogenesis, estrous cycle, female reproduction hormones. Pregnancy and childbirth.
Male reproductive system: Anatomy: testicle and spermatic pathways, accessory sex glands. Physiology: spermatogenesis, reproduction hormones, male accessory glands and their function.
Integumentary system and annexed glands. Mammary gland biology: breast morphology, notes on lactogenesis (milk and colostrum), lactation endocrinology and milk synthesis.
Endocrine system: Outline of glands: thyroid and endocrine pancreas.
Animal Genetics Part (Prof. Parma)
Basic issues: DNA and molecular structure of chromosomes. Flow of genetic information: DNA replication, transcription and RNA maturation, translation and genetic code. Mendelian genetics: Mendel's laws. Mendelian traits in farm animals. Tests of genetic hypotheses. Allelic variability: incomplete dominance and codominance, multiple alleles. Penetrance and expressivity. Genetic interaction. Epistasis and pleiotropy. Chromosomal basis of mendelism. Chromosomes, chromosomal theory of genetic transmission, karyotype and chromosomal abnormalities. Gene and sex. Sexual determination. Association, recombination and crossing over. Evolution of gene definition. Introduction to population genetics: gene and genotypic frequencies. Hardy-Weinberg law. Forces that causes change in gene and genotypic frequencies: nonrandom mating, migration, selection and genetic drift. Relationship and inbreeding: heterosis and inbreeding depression. Introduction to quantitative traits: QTL and polygenic model. Statistical description of quantitative traits: normal distribution, central indexes and measures of variation . Heritability.
Prerequisites for admission
Anatomy Part (Prof. Gandolfi)
Basic knowledge in animal biology, The following exams are recommended: Biology.
Animal Genetics Part (Prof. Parma)
None
Teaching methods
Anatomy Part (Prof. Gandolfi)
Frontal lessons + exercises
Animal Genetics Part (Prof. Parma)
Frontal lessons + exercises
Teaching Resources
Anatomy part (Prof. Gandolfi)
ANATOMIA E FISIOLOGIA DEGLI ANIMALI DOMESTICI - Bortolami, Callegari, Clavenzani, Beghelli - Edagricole Milano
CITOLOGIA E ISTOLOGIA FUNZIONALE - Calligaro et al., - Edi-Ermes Milano
Slides of the lectures and study materials will be available in the website Ariel (http://ariel.unimi.it/)
Animal Genetics Part (Prof. Parma)
ELEMENTI DI GENETICA RUSSELL, WOLFE, HERTZ, MCMILLAN, EDISES 2016 ISBN 978-88-7959-908-5
notes available on the ARIEL website
Assessment methods and Criteria
Anatomy Part (Prof. Gandolfi)
Student knowledge will be assessed through a written exams of 30 multiple choice questions eventually followed by a brief interview to asses to ability of the candidate to use the appropriate technical language for describing the acquired notions.
Animal Genetics Part (Prof. Parma)
Written + oral exam
Anatomia e fisiologia degli animali domestici
AGR/17 - LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS, ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS - University credits: 0
VET/01 - VETERINARY ANATOMY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 28 hours
Professor: Gandolfi Fulvio
Genetica animale
AGR/17 - LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS, ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS - University credits: 0
VET/01 - VETERINARY ANATOMY - University credits: 0
Field activity: 16 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Parma Pietro
Professor(s)
Reception:
From Monday to Friday upon appointment
Office or after the lectures
Reception:
by appointment
Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, Building 6