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Basic sciences preparatory to veterinary medicine

A.Y. 2020/2021

Learning objectives

The main objective of the course is to provide students both with the basic knowledge of physics and chemistry in order to understand the processes and phenomena and with the theoretical notions for analyzing statistical data, focusing in particular on topics related to their field of activity.

Expected learning outcomes

1) Appling knowledge and understanding: the student will demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the basic principles of the disciplines addressed in the different modules and to have understood the topics covered: from the basic principles of Physics, Chemistry and statistical process applied to biological data of veterinary interest to the organization, consultation and analysis of data with appropriate IT tools.

2) Appling knowledge and understanding: the student will demonstrate applied skills in: i) solving simple analytical problems related to the different disciplines, ii) consulting scientific sources and databases, iii) understanding the obtained results; iv) understanding terminology of the different disciplines ; v) use of the basic software for the analysis of biological data, bibliographic references collection and presentation of results.

3) Making judgements: the student will demonstrate autonomy in the efficacious use of the teaching materials made available and in the selection of authoritative scientific sources for the understanding and resolution of basic analytical questions of the various subjects and the use of the main software. These skills are acquired through frontal activities and practice sessions and also through individual study

4) Communication: during the frontal and practical activities foreseen in the course and in the exam, the student will demonstrate skills in presenting and organizing the concepts acquired with the most appropriate scientific terminology.

5) Life long learning skills: the student will be able to use the basic tools acquired to update their knowledge, to improve autonomously their skills by consulting bibliographic material and databases. These skills are perfected through individual study and the activities carried out for the preparation for the final test.

2) Appling knowledge and understanding: the student will demonstrate applied skills in: i) solving simple analytical problems related to the different disciplines, ii) consulting scientific sources and databases, iii) understanding the obtained results; iv) understanding terminology of the different disciplines ; v) use of the basic software for the analysis of biological data, bibliographic references collection and presentation of results.

3) Making judgements: the student will demonstrate autonomy in the efficacious use of the teaching materials made available and in the selection of authoritative scientific sources for the understanding and resolution of basic analytical questions of the various subjects and the use of the main software. These skills are acquired through frontal activities and practice sessions and also through individual study

4) Communication: during the frontal and practical activities foreseen in the course and in the exam, the student will demonstrate skills in presenting and organizing the concepts acquired with the most appropriate scientific terminology.

5) Life long learning skills: the student will be able to use the basic tools acquired to update their knowledge, to improve autonomously their skills by consulting bibliographic material and databases. These skills are perfected through individual study and the activities carried out for the preparation for the final test.

**Lesson period:**
First semester

**Assessment methods:** Esame

**Assessment result:** voto verbalizzato in trentesimi

Course syllabus and organization

### Single session

Responsible

Lesson period

First semester

The lessons will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both in sync according to the first semester schedule and asynchronously because they will be recorded and left available to students on the same platform. Some lessons and PDF files may be available on the Ariel platform.

**Prerequisites for admission**

Basic notions of mathematics: derivatives and integrals.

**Assessment methods and Criteria**

The examination takes place in a separate written test for each module and consisting in open questions, problems and practical use of basic software for the analysis of biological data, bibliographic references collection and presentation of analytical results. The duration of each written test is 90 minutes. The final score is a weighted mean of the scores of each single test as a function of the relative credits.

**Medical physics**

**Course syllabus**

- INTRODUCTION: · Introduction to Science and Physics · The Scientific method · The measurement of physical quantities, units of measurement · International System, fundamental and derived quantities (1 HOUR)

- KINEMATICS: · Time · Space · Speed · Hourly law · Average and instantaneous speed · Acceleration (1 HOUR)

- FORCES: · Strength · The three principles of dynamics · Uniform rectilinear motion · Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion · The law of universal gravitation and the acceleration of gravity · The weight force · The free fall. (2 HOURS)

- DYNAMICS: · Principle of energy conservation · Forms of energy · Work and energy · Power · Conservative and dissipative forces · Potential energy · Kinetic energy · Kinetic energy theorem · Conservation of mechanical energy · Linear moment and conservation law · Center of mass · Rotational motions: angular velocity and acceleration · Moment of inertia. (3 HOURS)

- STATIC: · Moment of a force · Angular momentum and conservation law · Static and its cardinal equations: balance · Levers. (2 HOURS)

- THERMAL PHENOMENA : · Dissipative forces: friction · Extensive and intensive properties / quantities · Specific gravity · Pressure · Stages of matter · Molecular interactions and internal energy · Temperature and heat · Heat transfer · The operational measurement of temperature · Thermal expansion / contraction · Thermal capacity and specific heat · Thermal conductivity · Emittivity · Thermodynamics, state variables, thermodynamic systems · Ideal gases, equation of state · Zero principle of thermodynamics · First thermodynamics principle · second thermodynamics principle · entropy · third thermodynamics principle (3 HOURS)

- FLUID STATIC AND DYNAMICS: · Fluids · Isotropy of pressures · Stevin's law: hydrostatic pressure · Pascal's principle · Archimedes' principle · Surface tension, capillarity · Flow rate · Bernulli's theorem · Viscosity · Laminar motion, turbulent motion (2 HOURS)

- ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA: · The electric charge · The atom: microscopic structure · The electric charge · Coulomb force · The electric field and potential · The electric current · The Ohm's laws, resistance and resistivity · Electric power and Joule effect · Magnetic fields (2 HOURS)

- KINEMATICS: · Time · Space · Speed · Hourly law · Average and instantaneous speed · Acceleration (1 HOUR)

- FORCES: · Strength · The three principles of dynamics · Uniform rectilinear motion · Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion · The law of universal gravitation and the acceleration of gravity · The weight force · The free fall. (2 HOURS)

- DYNAMICS: · Principle of energy conservation · Forms of energy · Work and energy · Power · Conservative and dissipative forces · Potential energy · Kinetic energy · Kinetic energy theorem · Conservation of mechanical energy · Linear moment and conservation law · Center of mass · Rotational motions: angular velocity and acceleration · Moment of inertia. (3 HOURS)

- STATIC: · Moment of a force · Angular momentum and conservation law · Static and its cardinal equations: balance · Levers. (2 HOURS)

- THERMAL PHENOMENA : · Dissipative forces: friction · Extensive and intensive properties / quantities · Specific gravity · Pressure · Stages of matter · Molecular interactions and internal energy · Temperature and heat · Heat transfer · The operational measurement of temperature · Thermal expansion / contraction · Thermal capacity and specific heat · Thermal conductivity · Emittivity · Thermodynamics, state variables, thermodynamic systems · Ideal gases, equation of state · Zero principle of thermodynamics · First thermodynamics principle · second thermodynamics principle · entropy · third thermodynamics principle (3 HOURS)

- FLUID STATIC AND DYNAMICS: · Fluids · Isotropy of pressures · Stevin's law: hydrostatic pressure · Pascal's principle · Archimedes' principle · Surface tension, capillarity · Flow rate · Bernulli's theorem · Viscosity · Laminar motion, turbulent motion (2 HOURS)

- ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA: · The electric charge · The atom: microscopic structure · The electric charge · Coulomb force · The electric field and potential · The electric current · The Ohm's laws, resistance and resistivity · Electric power and Joule effect · Magnetic fields (2 HOURS)

**Teaching methods**

Lectures for a total of 2 credits, 16 hours.

**Teaching Resources**

- The slides shared on ARIEL as a teacher

- Reference text: "Physics for Life Sciences" - Bellini - Manuzio - Meinardi - Amaldi, ed. Piccin.

- Reference text: "Physics for Life Sciences" - Bellini - Manuzio - Meinardi - Amaldi, ed. Piccin.

**Chemistry**

**Course syllabus**

Lectures (2 credits):

Atomic structure. Periodic table. Chemical bonds. Molecular Geometry (2 h)

Stoichiometry (2 HOURS)

Acids and bases (3 HOURS)

Thermodinamics (1 HOUR)

Electrochemistry (1 HOUR)

Colligative properties (1 HOUR)

Hydrocarbons (1 HOUR)

Stereochemistry (2 HOURS)

Main functional groups (2 HOURS)

Main reaction mechanisms (1 HOURS)

Practice (1 CFU):

Inorganic nomenclature (2 HOURS)

Stoichiometry exercises (3 HOURS)

pH calculations (4 HOURS)

Calculation examples on thermodinamics, electrochemistry and osmosis (3 HOURS)

Organic nomenclature (2 HOURS)

Exercises on stereochemistry (2 HOURS)

Atomic structure. Periodic table. Chemical bonds. Molecular Geometry (2 h)

Stoichiometry (2 HOURS)

Acids and bases (3 HOURS)

Thermodinamics (1 HOUR)

Electrochemistry (1 HOUR)

Colligative properties (1 HOUR)

Hydrocarbons (1 HOUR)

Stereochemistry (2 HOURS)

Main functional groups (2 HOURS)

Main reaction mechanisms (1 HOURS)

Practice (1 CFU):

Inorganic nomenclature (2 HOURS)

Stoichiometry exercises (3 HOURS)

pH calculations (4 HOURS)

Calculation examples on thermodinamics, electrochemistry and osmosis (3 HOURS)

Organic nomenclature (2 HOURS)

Exercises on stereochemistry (2 HOURS)

**Teaching methods**

Each topic is presented in short theoretical lectures, followed by exercise classes consisting in calculations that emphasize the importance of a quantitative approach in science.

**Teaching Resources**

Learning material on ARIEL website. Any University treatise on General and Organic Chemistry.

**Biomedical Statistics**

**Course syllabus**

1. Theoretical Classes

· Introduction to the subject: the importance of biostatistics in Veterinary Medicine. Descriptive and inferential statistics. Samples and populations. Types of variables: qualitative, quantitative. Accuracy, accuracy and distortion (2 HOURS)

· Descriptive statistics. Absolute, relative and cumulative frequency tables. Diagrams and histograms. Percentiles and Quantiles. Box-plot. Arithmetic and geometric mean, median, mode, interquartile difference. Range of variation, deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (4 HOURS)

· Probability. Sample distributions. Basic rules of probability. Analysis of proportions: binomial distribution. Estimating proportions: confidence interval and standard error of a proportion. The Poisson distribution (2 HOURS).

Normal distribution. Normalized standard distribution. The central limit theorem. The sampling distribution of an estimate: the standard error. The confidence interval (2 HOURS).

Verifying hypotheses. Null hypothesis and alternative statistical significance and P-value. Check hypothesis and confidence intervals. Error types I and II (2 HOURS)

· Inference to a population with normal distribution: distribution, assumption, and properties. The t test for a sample. The t test for comparison between two means. Paired and independent data (2 HOURS).

The comparison between the means of several groups: analysis of variance. The F-distribution (2 HOURS)

· Relationship between variables: covariance. Correlation and linear regression. Regression analysis (4 HOURS).

The chi-square test- The chi-square distribution. The 2x2 contingency table. Odds ratio (3 HOURS)

· Introduction to information science: Information concept, algorithm, coding and language. The encoding of information, data, letters and images. Decimal, hexadecimal, binary numeration. Text encoding: ASCII and UNICODE format. Image formats: bitmap graphics and vector graphics (3 HOURS)

· Use of spreadsheets: operators, absolute and relative references, biological data management, formulas and tools for statistical analysis of data (2 HOURS)

Databases: CAB Abstracts, PUBMed, OPAC. Biological databases (4 HOURS)

2. Practical classes (Computer Classroom):

· Using Spreadsheets: Importing Data and Formats. Working with tables and charts. Construction of tables and graphs appropriate for the analysis of different types of variables: paddle and overlapping bars diagrams, pie charts; maps; Dispersion diagrams, histograms, Sturges rule, percentiles and quantiles, cumulative frequency distributions (4 HOURS)

· Descriptive statistics: Calculation of the principal position and dispersion measurements: arithmetic and geometric mean, mode, median, percentile and quantile. Variation range; Interquartile interval; Deviance standard deviation and variation coefficient. Evaluation of the normality of a distribution (4 HOURS)

· Statistical analysis of data using Excel (3 HOURS)

· Use of analytical tools to create summary tables (1 HOURS).

· Database searches (4 HOURS)

· Introduction to the subject: the importance of biostatistics in Veterinary Medicine. Descriptive and inferential statistics. Samples and populations. Types of variables: qualitative, quantitative. Accuracy, accuracy and distortion (2 HOURS)

· Descriptive statistics. Absolute, relative and cumulative frequency tables. Diagrams and histograms. Percentiles and Quantiles. Box-plot. Arithmetic and geometric mean, median, mode, interquartile difference. Range of variation, deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (4 HOURS)

· Probability. Sample distributions. Basic rules of probability. Analysis of proportions: binomial distribution. Estimating proportions: confidence interval and standard error of a proportion. The Poisson distribution (2 HOURS).

Normal distribution. Normalized standard distribution. The central limit theorem. The sampling distribution of an estimate: the standard error. The confidence interval (2 HOURS).

Verifying hypotheses. Null hypothesis and alternative statistical significance and P-value. Check hypothesis and confidence intervals. Error types I and II (2 HOURS)

· Inference to a population with normal distribution: distribution, assumption, and properties. The t test for a sample. The t test for comparison between two means. Paired and independent data (2 HOURS).

The comparison between the means of several groups: analysis of variance. The F-distribution (2 HOURS)

· Relationship between variables: covariance. Correlation and linear regression. Regression analysis (4 HOURS).

The chi-square test- The chi-square distribution. The 2x2 contingency table. Odds ratio (3 HOURS)

· Introduction to information science: Information concept, algorithm, coding and language. The encoding of information, data, letters and images. Decimal, hexadecimal, binary numeration. Text encoding: ASCII and UNICODE format. Image formats: bitmap graphics and vector graphics (3 HOURS)

· Use of spreadsheets: operators, absolute and relative references, biological data management, formulas and tools for statistical analysis of data (2 HOURS)

Databases: CAB Abstracts, PUBMed, OPAC. Biological databases (4 HOURS)

2. Practical classes (Computer Classroom):

· Using Spreadsheets: Importing Data and Formats. Working with tables and charts. Construction of tables and graphs appropriate for the analysis of different types of variables: paddle and overlapping bars diagrams, pie charts; maps; Dispersion diagrams, histograms, Sturges rule, percentiles and quantiles, cumulative frequency distributions (4 HOURS)

· Descriptive statistics: Calculation of the principal position and dispersion measurements: arithmetic and geometric mean, mode, median, percentile and quantile. Variation range; Interquartile interval; Deviance standard deviation and variation coefficient. Evaluation of the normality of a distribution (4 HOURS)

· Statistical analysis of data using Excel (3 HOURS)

· Use of analytical tools to create summary tables (1 HOURS).

· Database searches (4 HOURS)

**Teaching methods**

The course is composed by lectures (4 credits, 32 hours) and exercises (1 credit, 16 hours).

**Teaching Resources**

- Analisi statistica dei dati biologici.Whitlock M.C.,Schluter D.2010 Ed. Zanichelli;

- Fondamenti di statistica per le discipline biomediche. Triola M.M., Triola M. F. - Pearson Italia, 2013;

- Slides and support material (datasets etc.) are available on the course's ARIEL website [https://rrizziib.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v5/home/Default.aspx

- Fondamenti di statistica per le discipline biomediche. Triola M.M., Triola M. F. - Pearson Italia, 2013;

- Slides and support material (datasets etc.) are available on the course's ARIEL website [https://rrizziib.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v5/home/Default.aspx

Biomedical Statistics

SECS-S/02 - STATISTICS FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH - University credits: 5

Practicals: 16 hours

Lessons: 32 hours

Lessons: 32 hours

Professors:
Marelli Stefano Paolo, Rizzi Rita Maria

Shifts:

Professor:
Rizzi Rita Maria

1 turno per gruppo di studenti

Professor:
Rizzi Rita Maria2 turno per gruppo di studenti

Professor:
Marelli Stefano Paolo
Chemistry

CHIM/03 - GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY - University credits: 3

Practicals: 16 hours

Lessons: 16 hours

Lessons: 16 hours

Professors:
Biondi Pier Antonio, Pavlovic Radmila

Medical physics

FIS/01 - EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/02 - THEORETICAL PHYSICS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS - University credits: 0

FIS/03 - PHYSICS OF MATTER - University credits: 0

FIS/04 - NUCLEAR AND SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/05 - ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/06 - PHYSICS OF THE EARTH AND OF THE CIRCUMTERRESTRIAL MEDIUM - University credits: 0

FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/08 - PHYSICS TEACHING AND HISTORY OF PHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/02 - THEORETICAL PHYSICS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS - University credits: 0

FIS/03 - PHYSICS OF MATTER - University credits: 0

FIS/04 - NUCLEAR AND SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/05 - ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/06 - PHYSICS OF THE EARTH AND OF THE CIRCUMTERRESTRIAL MEDIUM - University credits: 0

FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 0

FIS/08 - PHYSICS TEACHING AND HISTORY OF PHYSICS - University credits: 0

Lessons: 16 hours

Professor:
Pettinato Vincenzina

Professor(s)

Reception:

su appuntamento telefonico 02 50317930 o via e-mail.

in laboratorio nel seminterrato dell'ex-Istituto di Fisiologia.

Reception:

on appointment